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Raw Materials for Production Media

Raw Materials for Production Media

Industrial fermentation processes leverage a wide array of raw materials, with a significant emphasis on utilizing cost-effective and readily available sources. Among these, agricultural by-products stand out due to their abundance and potential for repurposing. The interest in these materials stems from several key factors: The concept of transforming ‘wastes into resources’ is not just … Read more

Production Media – Definition, Characteristics, Examples, Uses

Production Media - Definition, Characteristics, Examples, Uses

What is Production Media? Production media, often associated with the fermentation industry, plays a crucial role in the cultivation of specific strains for the purpose of generating either microbial cells or biochemical products. This media, essentially a growth environment, is meticulously formulated to support the development and productivity of designated microbial strains under controlled conditions. … Read more

Industrial centrifuge – Definition, Parts, Types, Uses

Industrial centrifuge - Definition, Parts, Types, Uses

What is an Industrial centrifuge? An industrial centrifuge is a machine that uses centrifugal force to separate or purify materials. Centrifuges work by spinning a sample at high speeds, using gravitational force to separate the components of the sample based on their density, size, or shape. Industrial centrifuges can be used for a wide range … Read more

Yeasts Starter Cultures  

Yeasts Starter Cultures  

Yeasts are eukaryotic, unicellular microorganisms that belong to the kingdom of fungi. The first yeast appeared hundreds of millions of years ago, and there are approximately 1,500 known kinds. Yeasts are unicellular organisms that developed from multicellular predecessors, with certain species able to acquire multicellular traits by generating pseudohyphae, which are strings of connected budding … Read more

Starter Cultures Preparation, Maintenance and Preservation

Starter Cultures Preparation, Maintenance and Preservation

Principles to maintain active tarter culture The preparation of cultures depends on a number of variables: 1. The choice of milk 2. Heat treatment of milk 3. Containers/Utensils 4. Amount of inoculum  5. Aseptic culture transfer 6. Time of inoculation 7. Cooling Preparation of mother culture The preparation of the mother culture is a crucial … Read more

Factors Affecting Fermentation Characteristics of Starter Cultures 

Factors Affecting Fermentation Characteristics of Starter Cultures 

Many variables can affect the fermentation process of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starters, including temperature, pH, strain capability, growth medium, inhibitors, bacteriophage, incubation period, heat treatment of milk, etc. To achieve the best activity of lactic acid bacteria during the manufacturing of fermented milks, caution is required. The following parameters significantly affect the growth and … Read more

Enzymes (amylase, protease, lipase) Production

Enzymes (amylase, protease, lipase) Production

What Are Enzymes? Structure of Enzyme  Enzymes Classification Historically, enzymes were given names based on their discoverer. With additional study, classification grew more exhaustive. The International Union of Biochemists (IUB) classifies enzymes into six functional classes based on the sort of reaction they catalyse. Hydrolases, oxidoreductases, lyases, transferases, ligases, and isomerases are the six types … Read more

Wine Production

Wine Production

Types of Wine Depending on the type of grape, yeast strain, fermentation process, etc., there are a variety of wines. There are so many differences amongst them that it becomes impossible to classify them accurately. However, the following are notable wine varieties: 1. Red wines 2. Dry wines 3. Sweet wines 4. Sparkling wines 5. … Read more

Beer Production

Beer Production

Health Benefits of Beer Beer provides numerous health benefits when drank in moderation. Among these fascinating health advantages are the following: 1. Anti-cancer properties  2. Reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases  3. Diabetes  4. Prevention of anemia  5. Hypertension  6. Anti-aging properties  7. Gallstones  8. Prevention of dementia and coronary disease 9. Aids digestive system  10. … Read more

Vitamin B12 Production

Vitamin B12 Production

What is Vitamin B12? Microorganisms used for B12 Productions Streptomyces griseus, S. olivaceus, Bacillus megaterium, B. coagulans, Pseudomonas denitrificans, Propionibacterium freudenreichi, P. shermani, and a mixed fermentation of a Proteus spp. and a Pseudomonas spp. may be used in the industrial manufacture of vitamin B12. Typically, Vitamin By is produced via the submerged-culture method. The … Read more

L-Glutamic Acid Production

L-Glutamic Acid Production

Dr. K. Ikeda, a Japanese scientist, extracted glutamic acid from kelp, a marine alga, by means of acid hydrolysis and separation in 1908. In addition, he observed that when glutamic acid was neutralised with caustic soda, it acquired a totally new, exquisite flavour. This marked the beginning of using monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a flavour … Read more

Penicillin Production

Penicillin Production

In 1929, Alexander Flemming found that the mould Penicillium notatum secreted penicillin. However, the lytic agent appeared to be too unstable to be useful. In 1939, however, when Chain refined the active ingredient, termed penicillin, it proved to be extraordinarily powerful against some illnesses. Penicillin is not a single chemical entity, but rather a series … Read more

Ethanol Production (Alcohol) – Ethanol fermentation

Ethanol Production

What is Ethanol? What is Ethanol (Alcohol) Fermentation? Ethanol Formula The molecular formula for ethanol is C2H6O, which indicates that it contains two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. The hydroxyl group (-OH) at the end of the two-carbon chain is denoted by the structural formula for ethanol, C2H5OH. Properties of Ethanol Ethanol, commonly known … Read more

Acetic Acid Production

Acetic Acid Production

What is Acetic Acid? Properties of  Acetic acid-CH3COOH CH3COOH Acetic Acid Molecular weight/molar mass of CH3COOH 60.052 g/mol Density of Acetamide 1.05 g/cm³ Boiling Point of Acetamide 118 °C Melting Point of Acetamide 16.6 °C Structure of Acetic acid Ethanoic acid is the second-simplest carboxylic acid structurally (the simplest being formic acid, HCOOH), and is … Read more

Gluconic Acid Production

Gluconic Acid Production

Gluconic Acid is the 16 stereoisomers of 2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoic acid. It is an inorganic chemical. It occurs naturally in honey, plants, and wine. The first carbon of glucose is oxidised to form gluconic acid, which has antibacterial and chelating effects. Please include the chemical composition and further details. Properties Of Gluconic Acid Chemical formula C6H12O7 Molecular … Read more

Lactic Acid Production

Lactic Acid Production

Lactic acid is manufactured commercially by both synthetic and fermentation processes. It is made synthetically in Japan and the United States. European manufacturers, on the other hand, make lactic acid by fermentation. European producers account for between 28,000 and 30,000 tonnes per year of the world’s estimated lactic acid production capacity. Pharmaceutical industries (e.g. iron … Read more

Citric Acid Production

Citric Acid Production

What is Citric Acid? Properties of Citric Acid – C6H8O7 C6H8O7 Citric Acid Molecular Weight/ Molar Mass 192.124 g/mol Density 1.66 g/cm³ Boiling Point 310 °C Melting Point 153 °C Citric Acid structure – C6H8O7 Which Microorganism is used for Citric Acid Production? Numerous microorganisms are utilised in the production of citric acid. There are … Read more

Downstream Processing Steps

Downstream Processing Steps

What is Downstream processing? Downstream processing refers to the procedures required to recover and purify fermentation-produced products. In the step of downstream processing, particles, mostly cells, are separated from the liquid using filtration, centrifugation, and flocculation. Steps Of Downstream Processing Five stages in downstream processing after Fermentation: Stage 1: Solid-Liquid Separation 1. Flotation 2. Flocculation … Read more

Enzyme Immobilization – Definition, Methods, Advantages, Disadvantages

Enzyme Immobilization - Definition, Methods, Advantages, Disadvantages

Enzyme Immobilization Soluble Enzyme + Substrate———– Product (single time usage of enzyme) Immobilized Enzyme + Substrate———Product (Repeated usage of enzyme) A number of essential considerations must be made when immobilising an enzyme. Advertisements What is a Support Matrix? It is a substance that facilitates the entrapment of an enzyme. For effective immobilization, a support matrix … Read more

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