Karyotype and Idiogram – Definition, Procedure, Steps, Applications

Karyotype and Idiogram - Definition, Procedure, Steps, Applications

What is Karyotyping? Definition of Karyotyping Karyotyping is a laboratory technique used to visualize and analyze the number, size, and shape of chromosomes in an individual’s cells, aiding in the detection of genetic abnormalities and chromosomal disorders. What is Idiogram? An idiogram is a diagrammatic representation of a karyotype, which showcases all the morphological features … Read more

Codon Chart and Codon Table

Codon Chart

What is Codon? What is a Codon Chart? A Codon Chart, often referred to as a codon table, is an essential scientific reference tool that provides a systematic representation of the relationship between sequences of three nucleotides, known as codons, and the amino acids they encode. This chart serves as a key to decode the … Read more

Deletion Mutation – Definition, Causes, Mechanism, Examples

Deletion Mutation - Definition, Causes, Mechanism, Examples

What is Deletion Mutation? Definition of Deletion Mutation A deletion mutation is a genetic anomaly in which a segment of a chromosome or DNA sequence is omitted during DNA replication, leading to the absence of specific nucleotides or entire chromosomal segments. This can result in altered gene function or expression. Causes of Deletion Mutation Deletion … Read more

DNA polymerase IV – Definition, Structure, Mechanism, Functions

DNA polymerase IV - Definition, Structure, Mechanism, Functions

What is DNA polymerase IV? Definition of DNA polymerase IV DNA polymerase IV is a prokaryotic enzyme encoded by the dinB gene, involved in mutagenesis and DNA repair processes, especially during the SOS response to DNA damage. Unlike many polymerases, it lacks proofreading activity, making it error-prone, but it plays a crucial role in translesion … Read more

DNA polymerase III (holoenzyme)

DNA polymerase III (holoenzyme)

What is DNA polymerase III (holoenzyme)? Definition of DNA polymerase III (holoenzyme) DNA polymerase III holoenzyme is the primary enzyme complex in prokaryotes responsible for DNA replication, possessing both synthesis and proofreading capabilities to ensure accurate replication of the genome. Components of DNA polymerase III (holoenzyme) The DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, a central player in … Read more

DNA polymerase II – Definition, Structure, Mechanism, Functions

DNA polymerase II - Definition, Structure, Mechanism, Functions

What is DNA polymerase II? Definition of DNA polymerase II DNA polymerase II (DNA Pol II) is a prokaryotic DNA-dependent DNA polymerase that primarily functions as a backup enzyme in DNA replication and repair processes. It belongs to the B family of DNA polymerases and possesses DNA synthesis and proofreading activities. Structure of DNA polymerase … Read more

Genetic Engineering – Definition, Tools, Steps, Advantages, Applications, Examples

Genetic Engineering - Definition, Tools, Steps, Advantages, Applications, Examples

What is Genetic Engineering? Definition of Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is the deliberate manipulation of an organism’s DNA using advanced techniques to modify, add, or remove specific genes, resulting in desired genetic traits or functions. Basic Tools of Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering involves the manipulation and transfer of genes from one organism to another. To … Read more

Recombinant DNA – Definition, Formation, Applications, Examples

Recombinant DNA

What is Recombinant DNA? Definition of Recombinant DNA Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is a form of DNA constructed in the laboratory by joining genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences not naturally found in any organism. Characterisitcs Features of Recombinant DNA Recombinant DNA (rDNA) refers to the formation of new combinations of DNA sequences that are … Read more

Silent Mutation – Definition, Causes, Mehcanism, Examples, Applications

Silent Mutation - Definition, Causes, Mehcanism, Examples, Applications

What are Silent mutations? Definition of Silent mutations Silent mutations are changes in the DNA sequence that do not result in an observable alteration in the phenotype, specifically not affecting the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein. Genetic Code Structural Consequences Primary Structure Consequences: The primary structure of a protein is defined by its … Read more

Chromosome Mapping – Definition, Types, Steps, Unit, Importance

Chromosome Mapping - Definition, Types, Steps, Unit, Importance

What is Chromosome Mapping? Chromosome mapping is a pivotal technique in genetics that determines the relative positions of genes on a chromosome. This process involves creating maps that systematically organize and elucidate genetic information on chromosomes. These maps not only depict the positions of genes but also the distances between them, scaled to a specific … Read more

Gene Interaction – Definition, Types, Examples, Importance

Gene Interactions

What is Gene Interactions? Definition of Gene Interactions Gene interactions refer to the relationships between multiple genes where the expression of one gene can influence, or be influenced by, the expression of another gene, collectively determining specific phenotypic traits in an organism. Types of Gene Interaction Gene interactions, pivotal in shaping the phenotypic traits of … Read more

Multiple Alleles – Definition, Characteristics, Examples, Importance

Multiple Alleles - Definition, Characteristics, Examples, Importance

What is Multiple Alleles? Definition of Multiple Alleles Multiple alleles refer to the situation where a gene exists in more than two alternative forms (alleles) within a population, contributing to genetic diversity and a range of possible traits. Multiple Alleles Characteristics The intricate world of genetics unveils itself through the concept of multiple alleles, each … Read more

Codominance – Definition, Examples, Importance

Codominance - Definition, Examples, Importance

What is Codominance? Codominance is a genetic phenomenon where two different alleles for a single trait are both expressed simultaneously in an organism’s phenotype. This results in a phenotype that clearly exhibits both alleles’ characteristics, rather than a blend of the two. In codominance, neither allele is recessive or masked by the other; instead, both … Read more

Incomplete Dominance – Definition, Mechanism, Examples

Mindmap on Incomplete Dominance

What is Incomplete Dominance? Definition of Incomplete Dominance Incomplete dominance refers to a genetic scenario where a heterozygous individual expresses a unique phenotype that is an intermediate blend of the two homozygous traits, neither allele completely dominating the other. Incomplete dominance is a genetic phenomenon that is defined by several distinct characteristics: In essence, incomplete … Read more

Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment – Definition, Examples, Limitations

Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment

What is Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment? Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment Definition Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment states that different genes and their alleles are inherited independently within sexually reproducing organisms. Characteristics and Principle of Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment is a fundamental principle governing genetic inheritance, which is … Read more

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