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Ion exchange mechanism in Ion Exchange Chromatography

Ion Exchange Chromatography

Ion exchange chromatography (IEC) is a chromatographic technique that allows for the separation of ions and polar molecules based on their charge. It utilizes a stationary phase composed of an insoluble matrix with covalently bonded charged groups. These charged groups can attract and bind ions of the opposite charge present in the mobile phase, which … Read more

Parts of a Microscope and Their Functions

Parts of Microscope

What are Microscopes? Parts of a Microscope The microscope parts are divided into two main categories,  such as; Structural parts of a microscope and their functions Structural parts of a microscope Location Function Head (Body Tube) Situated at the microscope’s apex. Serves as a pivotal connector, linking the eyepiece to the objective lenses, ensuring a … Read more

Microscope Condenser – Types, Parts, Mechanism, Uses

Condenser of a Microscope

A microscope condenser is an integral optical component in the realm of microscopy, designed to focus and direct light onto the specimen being examined. This specialized lens system is strategically positioned beneath the microscope stage, a placement crucial for optimal illumination. The primary function of the condenser is to gather light from the microscope’s light … Read more

Objective Lenses – Principle, Types, Specification, Uses

Objective Lenses - Principle, Types, Specification, Uses

What is Objective Lens? Purpose of Objective Lenses Objective lenses serve several key purposes in optical instruments, playing a critical role in magnification, image formation, and resolution. The primary purposes of objective lenses include: Specification of Objective Lens The specification of an objective lens encompasses several key parameters that define its performance and suitability for … Read more

Diaphragm of a Microscope – Definition, Types, Mechanism, Functions

Diaphragm of a Microscope - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Functions

What is Diaphragm of a Microscope? History of Diaphragm Definition of Diaphragm of a Microscope The diaphragm of a microscope is a component that controls the amount of light that passes through the specimen being observed. It is typically located between the light source and the stage, and consists of a series of adjustable blades … Read more

Fluorescence Microscopy – Definition, Principle, Parts, Uses, Examples

Fluorescence Microscope

The concept of using fluorescence to study biological materials dates back to the late 19th century, but the first practical fluorescence microscope was not developed until the 1930s. In 1938, Robert Goldstein and Richard Manly, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, published a paper describing the use of fluorescence to study cells and tissues … Read more

What is Dark Field Microscopy? – Principle, Parts, Procedure, Uses

Dark Field Microscope

What is Dark Field Microscopy? Definition of Dark Field Microscope A darkfield microscope is a type of optical microscope that uses oblique illumination to light the specimen, causing it to appear bright against a dark background. This technique enhances the visibility of transparent and living specimens by excluding the unscattered light from the image. Principle … Read more

What is an Inverted Microscope? – Principle, Procedure, Parts, Uses

Inverted microscope

What is an Inverted Microscope? Inverted Microscope Definition An inverted microscope is a specialized light microscope where the light source and condenser are positioned above the specimen stage, while the objectives and turret are below the stage, allowing for the viewing of specimens from a bottom-up perspective. This design is opposite to that of conventional … Read more

PH Meter – Principle, Parts, Types, Procedure, Calibration, Application, Examples

PH Meter Definition, Principle, Parts, Types, Application, Procedure.

What is pH Meter? Definition of pH Meter A pH meter is a scientific instrument used to measure the acidity or alkalinity of aqueous solutions by determining the hydrogen-ion activity, expressed as pH. It operates based on the difference in electrical potential between a pH electrode and a reference electrode. What is pH? In the … Read more

Bright Field Microscope: Definition, Parts, Working Principle, Application

Bright Field Microscope

What is Bright Field Microscope? Bright Field Microscope Definition The Brightfield Microscope, often termed the Compound Light Microscope, is an optical instrument that utilizes light rays to produce a dark image against a bright background, primarily used in biological studies to observe stained specimens. Principle of Brightfield Microscope The Brightfield Microscope operates on a foundational … Read more

Color Spectrophotometer – Principle, Parts, Procedure, Applications

Color Spectrophotometer - Principle, Parts, Procedure, Applications

What is Color Spectrophotometer? A color spectrophotometer is a scientific instrument designed to measure and analyze the color properties of various samples. By shining light onto a sample and measuring the intensity of the reflected light across different wavelengths, it provides a detailed profile of the sample’s color. This tool is essential in industries like … Read more

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer

Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer

What is Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer? Definition of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer The Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) is a scientific instrument used to quantitatively determine the presence and concentration of specific chemical elements in a sample by measuring the absorbed wavelengths of light by free metallic ions in their gaseous state. Principle of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer The … Read more

Spectrophotometer Cuvette – Features, Types, Materials, Precautions, Advantages

Spectrophotometer Cuvette - Features, Types, Materials, Precautions, Advantages

What is Spectrophotometer Cuvette? A spectrophotometer cuvette is a small, usually rectangular container used to hold liquid samples in a spectrophotometer. Spectrophotometers are instruments that measure the amount of light absorbed by a sample as a function of wavelength. The cuvette is an essential component of these instruments because it holds the sample in place … Read more

How to Calibrate ph Meter?

How to Calibrate ph Meter?

What is ph Meter? Why Calibrate A pH Meter? Calibration of a pH meter is a critical procedure to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the measurements it provides. Here are the primary reasons why calibration is essential: In summary, calibrating a pH meter is essential for maintaining its accuracy, ensuring the reliability of results, … Read more

Gradient PCR – Definition, Principle, Process, Functions

Gradient PCR - Definition, Principle, Process, Functions

What is Gradient PCR? Definition of Gradient PCR Gradient PCR is a specialized molecular technique that allows for the simultaneous testing of different annealing temperatures in a single PCR run, optimizing the conditions for precise DNA amplification. Principle of Gradient PCR The principle of Gradient PCR revolves around the capability to simultaneously evaluate a range … Read more

Toolmakers Microscope – Principle, Procedure, Parts, Applications

Toolmakers Microscope - Principle, Procedure, Parts, Applications

What is Toolmakers Microscope? Principle of Toolmakers Microscope The working principle of the toolmakers microscope relies on the principles of optics, similar to a conventional light microscope. The microscope is equipped with a light source that directs light upward, focusing it onto the object being observed. When the light falls on the object, it casts … Read more

Ocular Micrometer – Definition, Principle, Parts, Applications

Ocular Micrometer - Definition, Principle, Parts, Applications

What is Ocular Micrometer? Working Principle of Ocular Micrometer The principle of an ocular micrometer revolves around using a calibrated scale to accurately measure the size of objects viewed through a microscope. This scale, typically divided into 100 divisions, each measuring 0.01 millimeters (µm), is an essential component placed within the eyepiece of the microscope. … Read more

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