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Salmonella – Morphology, Antigenic structure, Cultural and Biochemical Characteristics

Salmonella - Morphology, Antigenic structure, Cultural and Biochemical Characteristics

Genus Salmonella Salmonella, a genus of bacteria, belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. These are rod-shaped, gram-negative bacilli known for their significant role in various diseases affecting both humans and animals. Therefore, understanding the characteristics and functions of Salmonella is crucial in the field of microbiology and medicine. The genus Salmonella is characterized by its enterobacterial properties. … Read more

Morphology of Bacteria – Sizes, Shapes, Arrangements, Examples With Images

Different Size, Shape and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells

What are bacteria? Characteristics Features of bacteria Bacteria, as microscopic entities, exhibit a unique assemblage of features that distinguish them from eukaryotic organisms, fundamentally setting them apart within the vast expanse of biological taxa. These features are emblematic of their evolutionary lineage and functional adaptability, encapsulating their cellular architecture, metabolic pathways, and ecological roles. Size … Read more

Gardnerella Vaginalis – Habitat, Morphology, Genome, Treatment

Gardnerella Vaginalis - Habitat, Morphology, Genome, Treatment

Domain: Bacteria Phylum: Actinomycetota Class: Actinomycetia Order: Bifidobacteriales Family: Bifidobacteriaceae Genus: Gardnerella Species: G. vaginalis What is Gardnerella Vaginalis? Gardnerella vaginalis is a micro-aerophilic coccobacillus that is a constituent of the vaginal microbiota. This bacterium, while present in the vaginal flora, does not inherently lead to bacterial vaginosis unless its populations become predominant. Contrary to some … Read more

Phytoplankton – Definition, Types, Importance, Example

Phytoplankton - Definition, Types, Importance, Example

What is Phytoplankton? Definition of Phytoplankton Phytoplankton are microscopic, photosynthetic organisms found in aquatic environments that serve as the foundation of marine and freshwater food chains and contribute significantly to global oxygen production and carbon cycling. Characteristics Features of Phytoplankton Phytoplankton are a diverse group of microscopic photosynthetic organisms that inhabit aquatic ecosystems, and they … Read more

Bacterial Secretion Systems – Definition, Types, Mechanism, Importance

What is Bacterial Secretion Systems? Definition of Bacterial Secretion Systems Bacterial secretion systems are specialized protein complexes in bacterial cell membranes that transport substances, primarily proteins, from the bacterial cell to its environment or into host cells, facilitating processes such as pathogenesis and environmental adaptation. Classes of bacterial protein secretion systems Bacterial protein secretion systems … Read more

Spirochete – Definition, Morphology, Diseases

Spirochete - Definition, Morphology, Diseases

What is Spirochete? Definition of Spirochete Spirochete is a type of bacteria characterized by its elongated, helically coiled (corkscrew-shaped) morphology, belonging to the phylum Spirochaetota. These bacteria are known for their unique movement mechanism using endoflagella and can be found in diverse environments, with some species causing diseases like Lyme disease and syphilis. Taxonomic organization … Read more

Treponema Pallidum – Definition, Structure, Transmission, Pathogenesis, Treatment

Treponema Pallidum - Definition, Structure, Transmission, Pathogenesis, Treatment

What is Treponema Pallidum? Definition of Treponema Pallidum Treponema pallidum is a helical, microaerophilic bacterium responsible for causing syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease, and other related diseases such as bejel and yaws. It is characterized by its slow metabolic rate and is best visualized using dark-field microscopy. What is Syphilis? Classification of Treponema Pallidum Treponema … Read more

Yersinia Pestis – Definition, Structure, Genome, Transmission, Pathogenesis, Treatment

Yersinia Pestis - Definition, Structure, Genome, Transmission, Pathogenesis, Treatment

What is Yersinia Pestis? Yersinia Pestis Definition Yersinia pestis is a gram-negative coccobacillus bacterium responsible for causing the disease known as the plague, historically linked to significant pandemics such as the Black Death. This facultative anaerobic organism is an obligate parasite, primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected fleas. General characteristics of Yersinia … Read more

Pseudomonas aeruginosa – Habitat, Diagnosis, Pathogenesis, Treatment

Pseudomonas aeruginosa - Habitat, Diagnosis, Pathogenesis, Treatment

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium classified under the Gamma Proteobacteria class of Bacteria. It is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium belonging to the bacterial family Pseudomonadaceae. The family Pseudomonadaceae includes various species of the genus Pseudomonas, which is further divided into eight groups based on conserved macromolecules like 16S ribosomal RNA. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the … Read more

Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) – Transmission, Disease, Pathogenesis, Treatment

Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)

What is Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)? Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) is a pathogenic bacteria that shares similarities with Shigella, a bacteria known to cause shigellosis. EIEC infections lead to a syndrome that closely resembles shigellosis, characterized by severe diarrhea and high fever. Unlike other types of E. coli, EIEC is highly invasive and enters intestinal … Read more

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

What is Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)? Virulence factors Virulence factors are key components that contribute to the pathogenicity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Here are some important virulence factors associated with STEC: These virulence factors play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of STEC infections, contributing to the colonization and damage of the intestinal … Read more

Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) – Disease, Pathogenesis, Treatment, Diagnosis

Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) - Disease, Pathogenesis, Treatment, Diagnosis

What is Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC)? Disease Caused by Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) Pathogenesis Mechanism of Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) The pathogenesis of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) involves several stages and mechanisms. EAEC is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food and water sources. The pathogenesis of EAEC is a complex process … Read more

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) – Diseases, Toxins, Mode of Actions, Transmission

Four-stage model of EPEC pathogenesis.

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are a group of strains of Escherichia coli that have been associated with diarrheal illnesses. The understanding of EPEC has evolved over time with the discovery of different mechanisms of pathogenesis. Here is a summary of the key points about EPEC: Advancements in techniques and a better … Read more

What are the Pathotypes of E. coli? – ETEC, EPEC, EHEC, EAEC, EIEC, DAEC

What are the Pathotypes of E. coli? - ETEC, EPEC, EHEC, EAEC, EIEC, DAEC

Escherichia coli, commonly referred to as E. coli, is a type of Gram-negative bacterium. It is facultative anaerobic, meaning it can survive in environments with or without oxygen, and has a rod-shaped morphology. E. coli is predominantly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms, including humans (endotherms). Human strains of E. coli can be … Read more

Vibrio parahaemolyticus Food Poisoning – Gastroenteritis

Vibrio parahaemolyticus Food Poisoning - Gastroenteritis

What is Vibrio parahaemolyticus Food Poisoning? Vibrio parahaemolyticus food poisoning is a type of acute gastroenteritis caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood products contaminated with the bacterium. Here is information about Vibrio parahaemolyticus food poisoning: Characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a bacterium with distinct characteristics that contribute to its physiology and … Read more

Foodborne Infection by Shigella- Shigellosis Food Poisoning

Foodborne Infection by Shigella- Shigellosis Food Poisoning

What is Shigella infection? Biological characteristics of Shigella Shigella bacteria possess several distinctive biological characteristics that contribute to their ability to cause infection and survive in various environments. Here are the key biological characteristics of Shigella: Sources and transmission of Shigella infection Epidemiology of Shigella infection The epidemiology of Shigella infection provides insights into the historical background, transmission dynamics, and global burden of … Read more

Vibrio cholerae Food Poisoning – Cholera toxin (CT)

Vibrio cholerae Food Poisoning - Cholera toxin (CT)

What is Vibrio cholerae Food Poisoning? Vibrio cholerae food poisoning, caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, is a serious diarrheal illness resulting in watery diarrhea and severe dehydration. Here’s what you need to know about Vibrio cholerae food poisoning: Vibrio cholerae food poisoning remains a significant public health issue, particularly in regions with limited resources … Read more

Salmonellosis – Food Infection and Food Poisoning by Salmonella

Salmonella - Overview

Salmonellae are common infections in both humans and animals. They practically populate any animal, including livestock, poultry, birds, reptiles, rodents, domesticated animals, and people. One of three clinical syndromes, such as gastroenteritis, enteric fever, or localised disease, are frequently brought on by salmonella infections in humans. Salmonella infections in animals also result in significant losses … Read more

Campylobacter Infection and Food Poisoning – Campylobacteriosis

Campylobacter Infection and Food Poisoning - Campylobacteriosis

What is Campylobacteriosis? Campylobacteriosis is a common bacterial infection that primarily affects the gastrointestinal tract, leading to gastroenteritis. Here is some information about campylobacteriosis: Efforts to prevent campylobacteriosis focus on ensuring food safety, particularly in relation to poultry products, by implementing good hygiene practices during production, processing, and preparation. Public awareness campaigns about safe food … Read more

Food poisoning by Listeria monocytogenes – Listeriosis

Food poisoning by Listeria monocytogenes - Listeriosis

What is Listeriosis? Listeriosis, also known as listeria infection, is a foodborne illness caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. It is a significant cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. Here are some key points about listeriosis: It is important to note that the information provided here is a general overview of listeriosis. For specific guidance and … Read more

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