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Are Viruses Living or Non-Living?

Are Viruses Living or Non-Living?

What are Viruses? Definition of Viruses Viruses are submicroscopic infectious agents that can only replicate within the living cells of a host organism, capable of infecting all forms of life. They consist of genetic material (DNA or RNA) encased in a protein coat and, in some cases, an external lipid envelope. Are Viruses Living or … Read more

Lysogenic Cycle – Definition, Steps, Importance

Lysogenic Cycle - Definition, Steps, Importance

What is Lysogenic Cycle? Definition of Lysogenic Cycle The lysogenic cycle is a viral replication process in which a virus integrates its genetic material into the host cell’s genome, allowing it to remain dormant and propagate without immediately destroying the host. This dormant viral DNA, known as a prophage, can later be activated to initiate … Read more

Lytic Cycle – Definition, Steps, Importance, Examples

Lytic Cycle - Definition, Steps, Importance, Examples

What is Lytic Cycle? Definition of Lytic Cycle The lytic cycle is a phase of viral reproduction wherein a virus infects a host cell, utilizes the cell’s machinery to replicate, and subsequently causes the cell to burst (lyse), releasing new virions to infect other cells. Bacteriophage(virus) Life cycle of bacteriophage Steps of the Lytic Cycle … Read more

Measles Virus – Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Replication of Measles Virus

Structure of Measles Virus Genome Structure of Measles Virus Epidemiology of Measles Virus Transmission of Measles Virus Replication of Measles Virus Pathogenesis of Measles Virus Clinical manifestations of Measles Virus Complications If not properly treated, measles can result in chronic complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis, etc. Other possible complications include: Laboratory diagnosis Methods of Measles … Read more

Human Cytomegalovirus – Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Structure of Human Cytomegalovirus

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a widespread virus whose manifestations in immunocompromised patients with congenital CMV disease range from asymptomatic to severe end-organ dysfunction. Human cytomegalovirus is a member of the herpesviruses, Herpesviridae, or human herpesvirus-5 (HHV-5) family of viruses. Infections with the human cytomegalovirus are frequently associated with the salivary ducts. An infection with CMV may … Read more

Rotavirus – Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Structure of Rotavirus

Rotavirus is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the genus Reoviridae. Rotaviruses are the leading cause of diarrhea in neonates and young children. By the age of five, nearly every child in the world has been infected with rotavirus at least once.Immunity develops with each infection, reducing the severity of subsequent infections. Rarely … Read more

Torovirus – Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Torovirus - Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Torovirus is a genus of enveloped, positive-strand RNA viruses belonging to the Nidovirales order and Tobaniviridae family.They infect predominantly vertebrates, particularly cattle, pigs, and horses. Among the diseases associated with this genus is gastroenteritis, a condition typically observed in mammals.Torovirus is the only genus in the monotypic Torovirinae subfamily.Torovirus is a monotypic taxon with a … Read more

Classification of Virus

Classification of Virus

What is a Virus? Structure and Function of Viruses Properties of Viruses Classification of Viruses Classification of Viruses On the Basis of Genetic Material Present Viruses can be classified based on the type of genetic material they contain. There are two main types of genetic material that viruses can have: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or RNA (ribonucleic … Read more

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV)

Replication of SARS-CoV

SARS-CoV is a type of coronavirus that caused a global outbreak of severe respiratory illness in 2002-2003. The virus was first identified in China and quickly spread to other countries, including Canada, where there was a significant outbreak. The symptoms of SARS-CoV include fever, cough, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, the illness can progress … Read more

Coltivirus – Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Structure of Coltivirus

Coltivirus is a virus genus (of the family Reoviridae) that infects both vertebrates and invertebrates. It contains the agent that causes Colorado Lyme fever. The Colorado tick fever virus can lead to fever, shivers, headache, photophobia, myalgia, arthralgia, and fatigue. Children are especially susceptible to developing a hemorrhagic disease. Leukopenia containing both lymphocytes and neutrophils … Read more

Hanta Virus – Definition, Structure, Genome, Replication

Pathogenesis of Hanta Virus

Hanta Virus Structure of Hanta Virus Genome Structure of Hanta Virus Epidemiology of Hanta Virus Transmission of Hanta Virus Replication cycle of hantaviruses Pathogenesis of Hanta Virus The recognition of hantaviruses by macrophages (M) or dendritic cells (DCs) induces proinflammatory cytokines, which alter the phenotype of endothelial cells (ECs) from anti- to pro-adhesive. Pro-adhesive ECs … Read more

Varicella Zoster Virus – Definition, Structure, Genome, Replication

Genome of Varicella Zoster Virus

Varicella zoster virus Structure of Varicella Zoster Virus Genome of Varicella Zoster Virus Epidemiology of Varicella Zoster Virus Transmission of Varicella Zoster Virus Replication and Life cycle of Varicella Zoster Virus Life cycle The human host is infected by VZV when virus particles reach mucosal epithelial entry sites. VZV obtains access to T cells after spreading … Read more

Coronavirus – Definition, Structure, Genome, Replication

Structure of Coronavirus

Coronavirus Characteristics of COVID-19 Structure of Coronavirus Genome of Coronavirus Epidemiology of Coronavirus The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The virus was identified for the first time in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has since spread worldwide, resulting in a pandemic. Here are some essential aspects of the epidemiology of COVID-19: Replication of Coronavirus … Read more

Mumps Virus – Definition, Replication, Structure, Genome, Pathogenesis

Structure of Mumps Virus

The predominant clinical manifestation of mumps is parotitis-related salivary gland enlargement. This symptom is so distinctive that the disease was immediately distinguished from other pediatric illnesses that cause skin rashes. In the fifth century B.C., Hippocrates identified measles as a distinct disease. Additionally, he mentioned orchitis as a common complication of mumps. In some cases … Read more

Zika Virus (ZIKV) – Definition, Structure, Genome, Replication, Transmission

Structure of Zika Virus

Zika Virus (ZIKV) Characteristics of Zika Virus (ZIKV) Structure of Zika Virus Genome Structure of Zika Virus Zika Virus Replication Viruses cannot replicate until they infect and “reprogram” appropriate host cells to become virus-producing factories. The epidermis and dermis of the host skin contain fibroblast, keratinocytes, and immature dendritic cells where the Zika virus replicates. In … Read more

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) – Definition, Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Replication of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

Respiratory syncytial virus Structure of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Genome Structure of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Genome Structure of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Epidemiology of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Transmission of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Replication of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Pathogenesis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Clinical Manifestations of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) can cause a range … Read more

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