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Secondary Consumers – Definition, Types, Functions, Examples

Secondary Consumers - Definition, Types, Functions, Examples

What are Secondary Consumers? Definition of Secondary Consumers Secondary consumers are organisms that primarily feed on primary consumers, which are herbivores, in a food chain. They occupy the third trophic level and can be either carnivores, who eat only other animals, or omnivores, who consume both animal and plant matter. Their role is vital in … Read more

Primary Consumers – Definition, Importance, Examples

Primary Consumers - Definition, Importance, Examples

Primary consumers are fundamental components of ecological food chains, holding a critical position as the link between producers and higher trophic levels. In essence, they are organisms that feed directly on primary producers, typically plants or algae, which are capable of photosynthesis. Occupying the second trophic level, primary consumers are mostly herbivores, although some omnivorous … Read more

Carbon Fixation – Process, Pathways, Importance

Carbon Fixation - Process, Pathways, Importance

What is Carbon Fixation? Carbon Fixation Definition Carbon fixation is a biological process where atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is converted into organic compounds, primarily by plants, algae, and certain bacteria. This process is a key component of photosynthesis, enabling the incorporation of inorganic carbon from the atmosphere into organic molecules like carbohydrates, thereby playing a … Read more

Microbial interaction – Definition, Types, Characteristics, Examples

Microbial interaction - Definition, Types, Characteristics, Examples

Microbial interaction is a biological interaction in which the effect of microorganisms on other biotic components of an ecosystem can be investigated. Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, and microbial ecology is the study of microbial interactions within an ecosystem. Positive and negative microbial interactions are possible, and microbes can affect (positively or negatively) other … Read more

Pyramid of Numbers – Definition, Types, Importance, Examples

Pyramid of Numbers - Definition, Types, Importance, Examples

What is Pyramid of Number? The Pyramid of Numbers is a graphical representation used in ecology to illustrate the distribution of various species in different trophic levels of a food chain. This pyramid provides a quantitative analysis, showing the number of individual organisms present at each trophic level. Unlike other ecological pyramids which might consider … Read more

Ecological Succession – Definition, Types, Mechanism, Examples

Ecological Succession - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Examples

What is Ecological Succession? Ecological Succession Definition Ecological succession is the systematic and predictable process by which species composition in an ecosystem changes over time, progressing from initial colonization to a mature and stable community. Characteristics of Ecological Succession Ecological succession is a fundamental concept in the realm of ecology, delineating the sequential transformation of … Read more

Biotic Factors of a Desert

Biotic Factors of a Desert

What is Biotic Factor? A biotic factor is a living component that affects another organism or shapes the ecosystem. These can be animals, plants, fungi, and microorganisms. They relate to the living things in an ecosystem and are essential for the survival and growth of organisms within their environment. Biotic factors determine the types and … Read more

Types of Microorganisms In Pond Water

Types of Microorganisms In Pond Water

Types of Microorganisms In Pond Water 1. Arthropods 2. Bacteria 3. Protozoa 4. Hydra 5. Algae Algae are autotrophic protists commonly found in pond water. They exhibit a wide range of colors, with most microorganisms being green, while some may appear yellowish-brown. The diversity of algae extends to their structure, where they can exist as … Read more

Nitrogen Cycle – Definition, Steps, Importance, Examples

Nitrogen Cycle – Definition, Steps, Importance

What is Nitrogen Cycle? Nitrogen Cycle Definition The nitrogen cycle is a biogeochemical process that transforms atmospheric nitrogen into usable forms for living organisms and then returns it to the atmosphere through a series of biological and chemical reactions. Stages of Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen fixation, nitrification, assimilation, ammonification, and denitrification are the steps in the … Read more

Eutrophication – Definition, Causes, Types, and Effects

Diagram of eutrophication

What is Eutrophication? Definition of Eutrophication Eutrophication is the process in which a water body becomes overly enriched with nutrients, leading to the excessive growth of algae and plankton. This often results in the deterioration of water quality, depletion of oxygen, and ecological imbalances in the affected ecosystem. Causes of Eutrophication – What causes eutrophication? … Read more

Soil Biology – Definition, Types, Proterties, Importance

Soil Biology - Definition, Types, Proterties, Importance

What is Soil Biology? What is Soil? Components of Soil The components of soil exhibit variations in their ratios across different locations due to various soil-forming factors, climate, topology, the presence of organisms, human influences, and the duration of their interaction. These components can be broadly categorized into four main groups: The relative proportions and … Read more

Biodegradation – Definition, Steps, Factors, Applications

Biodegradation - Definition, Steps, Factors, Applications

What is Biodegradation? Definition of Biodegradation Biodegradation is the natural process by which microorganisms break down organic matter into simpler substances, such as carbon dioxide, water, and minerals. Examples of Some biodegradable pollutants Biodegradable pollutants encompass a range of highly toxic synthetic compounds that have been introduced into the environment over time. Some examples of … Read more

Bioremediation – Definition, Types, Application

Bioremediation - Definition, Types, Application

What is Bioremediation? Bioremediation is a process used to clean up and detoxify polluted sites by utilizing microorganisms, plants, or their enzymes to break down and degrade environmental contaminants. It involves the natural or deliberate introduction of these biological agents to enhance the rate of degradation and transformation of pollutants. The concept of bioremediation includes … Read more

Extremophiles – Microbiology of Extreme Environments Definition, Types, Examples

Microbiology of Extreme Environments - Definition, Types, Examples

Microbiology of extreme environments focuses on the study of microorganisms that are capable of surviving and thriving in these harsh and inhospitable conditions. These microorganisms have evolved unique adaptations that allow them to withstand extreme temperatures, pressures, pH levels, salinity, and radiation exposure. Here are some key points about the microbiology of extreme environments: Studying … Read more

Bioaerosol – Definition, Types, Collection, Transmission

Bioaerosol - Definition, Types, Collection, Transmission

What is Bioaerosol? Bioaerosols (short for biological aerosols) are a subclass of particles produced into the atmosphere by terrestrial and marine ecosystems. They are made up of both live and nonliving components, including fungi, pollen, bacteria, and viruses. Common bioaerosol sources include soil, water, and sewage. Typically, bioaerosols are delivered into the atmosphere by wind … Read more

Host Pathogen Interaction

Host Pathogen Interaction

Host Pathogen Interaction The host–pathogen interaction is described as the molecular, cellular, organismal, or population-level sustenance of bacteria or viruses within host organisms. This phrase is widely used to describe to bacteria that cause disease, however they may not infect all hosts. As a result, the concept has been expanded to include how infections persist … Read more

Denitrification – Definition, Process, Factors

Denitrification - Definition, Process, Factors

What is Denitrification? The nitrogen cycle concludes with denitrification. The nitrogen cycle consists of living organisms fixing atmospheric nitrogen and then releasing it back into the atmosphere. Denitrification is the process of releasing nitrogen from living organisms into the atmosphere. By converting nitrate (NO3-) to nitrogen gas, the nitrogen component is returned to the atmosphere … Read more

Mycorrhiza – Definition, Types, Examples, Importance

Mycorrhiza - Definition, Types, Examples, Importance

What is Mycorrhiza? Definition of Mycorrhiza Mycorrhiza refers to the symbiotic association between specific fungi and plant roots, where the fungus aids in nutrient and water uptake for the plant, and in return, the plant provides the fungus with essential nutrients produced through photosynthesis. Types of Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizas are often classified as either ectomycorrhizas or … Read more

Nitrogen Fixation – Definition, Importance, Processes

Nitrogen Fixation - Definition, Importance, Processes

What is Nitrogen Fixation? Nitrogen fixation is the fundamental biological process and the first step in the nitrogen cycle. Certain bacterial species, such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter, etc., and other natural phenomena convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia (another type of nitrogen) throughout this process. NASA reports that the air in the earth’s atmosphere is composed of … Read more

Nodulation Steps, Structure, Functions

Nodulation Steps, Structure, Functions

What is Nodule? Commonly found in the roots of leguminous plants are nodules. The production of nodules is known as nodulation. They are the result of a relationship with the nitrogen-fixing bacteria Rhizobium. Rhizobia is the umbrella word for various nitrogen-fixing bacterial taxa, such as Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, etc. Plants cannot directly absorb nitrogen from the … Read more

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