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Determination of Phosphorus In Milk

Determination of Phosphorus In Milk

Phosphorus is an essential mineral found in many foods, including milk. It plays a critical role in various bodily functions such as the formation of bones and teeth, energy production, and the synthesis of RNA and DNA, which are crucial for the growth and repair of cells. In milk, phosphorus is naturally present and contributes … Read more

Determination of Magnesium In Milk

Determination of Magnesium In Milk

Magnesium is an essential mineral found in many foods, including milk. It plays a vital role in numerous bodily functions, such as muscle and nerve function, blood sugar control, and bone health. The magnesium content in milk contributes to its nutritional value, making milk a beneficial part of a balanced diet. The amount of magnesium … Read more

Determination of Calcium In Milk

Determination of Calcium In Milk

Milk is widely recognized as a significant source of calcium, an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of strong bones and teeth. This mineral is particularly important for infants and young children, whose rapidly growing bodies demand high levels of calcium to ensure proper bone formation and density. Calcium’s … Read more

Determination of Lactose In Milk by Lane-Eynon Method

Determination of Lactose In Milk by Lane-Eynon Method

What is Lane-Eynon Method? Principle of Lane-Eynon Method The Lane-Eynon method is a titrimetric procedure that quantifies reducing sugars in a solution through the utilization of Fehling’s solution as the primary reagent. This method operates on the fundamental chemistry of reduction-oxidation reactions, where Fehling’s solution, composed of copper sulfate and an alkaline solution of sodium … Read more

Folin-Wu Method For Estimation of Blood Glucose

Folin-Wu Method For Estimation of Blood Glucose

What is Folin-Wu Method? Principle of Folin-Wu Method Requirements Procedure of Folin-Wu Method Step 1: Preparation of Protein-Free Filtrate Step 2: Testing Procedure This process results in a color change proportional to the glucose concentration in the blood sample. By comparing the absorbance of the test sample against the standard, the glucose level in the … Read more

Ornithine Decarboxylase Test – Principle, Procedure, Result

Ornithine Decarboxylase Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

What is the ornithine decarboxylase test? Objectives of Decarboxylase Test Principle of Ornithine decarboxylase test/Principle of Decarboxylase Test Requirement The combination of these specific media, reagents, and supplies facilitates the accurate execution of the Decarboxylase Test. Each component plays a distinct role, from providing essential nutrients and pH indicators in the medium to ensuring the … Read more

Ames Test – Principle, Procedure, Result, Limitation, Applications

Ames Test Principle, Procedure, Result

What is Ames Test? Definition of Ames Test The Ames test is a biological assay developed by Bruce Ames, used to assess the mutagenic potential of chemical compounds by observing their ability to induce mutations in specific strains of bacteria, primarily Salmonella typhimurium. A positive result indicates that the chemical may be mutagenic and potentially … Read more

Nylander’s Test for Carbohydrates Principle, Procedure, Result

Nylander’s Test for Carbohydrates Principle, Procedure, Result

What is Nylander’s Test? Nylander’s Test, a renowned chemical assay, is primarily employed to ascertain the presence of reducing sugars within a given sample. Reducing sugars, as the name suggests, possess the inherent ability to act as reducing agents. Therefore, when these sugars, such as fructose and glucose, are subjected to alkaline conditions, they can … Read more

Methyl Red (MR) Test – Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses

Methyl Red and Voges Proskauer Test

What is Methyl Red (MR) Test? Objectives of Methyl Red (MR) Test The objectives of the Methyl Red (MR) Test can be outlined as follows: Principle of Methyl Red test The principle of the Methyl Red (MR) test is based on assessing the ability of an organism to produce and maintain stable acid end products through … Read more

Benedict’s Test – Principle, Reagent Preparation, Procedure, Result, Limitation

Benedict’s Test - Principle, Reagent Preparation, Procedure, Result, Limitation

Benedict’s test is a chemical test that is used to test for the presence of reduced sugars within an analytical test. Thus, simple carbohydrates that contain an aldehyde or free ketone functional group are detected using this test. The test is basing itself upon Benedict’s Reagent (also called Benedict’s solution) which is a complex mix of sodium carbonate, sodium citrate, and the pentahydrate of copper(II) Sulfate.

Indole Test – Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Indole test

What is Indole test? Indole Test Definition The indole test is a biochemical assay used to determine a bacterium’s ability to metabolize tryptophan into indole through the action of the enzyme tryptophanase, aiding in the differentiation and identification of certain bacterial species. Purpose of Indol Test (Objectives of Indole Test) The indole test serves a … Read more

Spot Indole Test – Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Spot Indole Test - Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

What is Spot Indole Test? Definition of Spot Indole Test The Spot Indole Test is a rapid biochemical method used to detect the production of indole by bacteria, indicating their ability to metabolize the amino acid tryptophan. This test aids in differentiating specific bacterial species based on their tryptophan degradation capabilities. Objectives of Spot Indole Test … Read more

Voges Proskauer (VP) Test – Principle, Procedure, Results

Voges Proskauer (VP) Test Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses

In 1898, Voges as well as Proskauer (16)characterized the process of fermentation of sugars by a variety of bacteria. They demonstrated that the gas that was produced during the process was a mixture of H2 and CO2 that when they added KOH to the cultures been grown in glucose peptone medium to allow for a prolonged period of incubation in presence of oxygen certain organisms developed a red fluorescent color. While the exact nature of the color was not known in the early days, this technique was suggested to differentiate between the bacterial strains that produced it and ones that didn’t. in 1906 Arthur Harden analyzed the fermentation products of Enterobacter aerogenes. He discovered that when it was surrounded by glucose, the organism made two compounds, acetoin as well as 2,3-butanedio.

Biochemical Test of Yersinia pestis

Biochemical Test of Yersinia pestis

What is Yersinia pestis? Yersinia pestis is a bacterium responsible for causing the disease known as the plague. This disease has various forms, including bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague. Historically, Yersinia pestis was the causative agent behind several major pandemics, including the Black Death in the 14th century, which resulted in the deaths of a … Read more

Beta (β) Lactamase Test Principle, Procedure, Results

Beta (β) Lactamase Test Principle, Procedure, Results

Many bacteria produce a group of enzymes known as beta-lactamases that are mediated through genes in plasmids or the chromosomes. Beta-lactamase can be a constant process or it may be triggered through contact with antimicrobials. Beta-lactamases hydrolyze (and consequently inhibit) the beta-lactam ring of many Cephalosporins as well as penicillins. Beta-Lactamase Test is a rapid test to determine the presence of beta-lactamase , an enzyme that is produced by the strains from Staphylococcus aureus Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Branhamella catarrhalis as well as Haemophilus influenzae. 

Pauly’s Test – Definition, Principle, Procedure, Uses

Pauly’s Test - Definition, Principle, Procedure, Uses

What is Pauly’s Test? Purposes of Pauly’s Test Principle of Pauly’s Test The presence of tyrosine and histidine can be determined with this test with high sensitivity. Sulphanilic acid is dissolved in hydrochloric acid and used as the reagent in this test. When being exposed to sodium nitrite and hydrochloric acid, sulphanilic acid forms a … Read more

Sulphosalicylic Acid Test for Proteinuria: Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Sulphosalicylic Acid Test for Proteinuria: Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

The majority of plasma proteins are too big to pass through the kidney’s glomeruli. The limited quantity of protein that does filter through is often reabsorbed by the renal tubules back into the blood. Normal urine contains only trace levels of protein (less than 150 mg per 24 hours). Tamm-horsfall protein (up to 40%), albumin … Read more

Heat and Acetic Acid Test for Proteinuria: Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Heat and Acetic Acid Test for Proteinuria

The bulk of plasma proteins are composed of big particles, making it difficult for them to pass through the glomeruli of the kidney. However, kidney tubules filter out and reabsorb smaller protein particles back into the blood. There are traces of proteins such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, hormones, mucopolysaccharides, albumin, enzymes, and immunoglobulins in normal urine. … Read more

Bacteriological Examination of Waters by Using Membrane Filtration Method

Bacteriological Examination of Waters by Using Membrane Filtration Method

Human pathogenic bacteria transmitted via the fecal-oral route, i.e., primarily intestinal pathogens, constitute one component of drinkable water quality analysis. Screening water for faecal contamination by testing for the presence of an indicator microbe is more practicable than doing thorough routine examinations for the presence of every type of disease. If you want to know … Read more

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