The seven traits that Gregor Mendel studied in his experiments with pea plants were primarily traits that exhibit simple patterns of inheritance and can be categorized as discrete or qualitative traits. These traits are determined by a single gene with two contrasting forms or alleles, one dominant and one recessive. The expression of these genes follows Mendelian inheritance patterns, where the dominant allele masks the expression of the recessive allele.
The seven traits studied by Mendel were:
- Flower color: Purple (dominant) versus white (recessive)
- Flower position: Axial (dominant) versus terminal (recessive)
- Stem length: Long (dominant) versus short (recessive)
- Seed color: Yellow (dominant) versus green (recessive)
- Seed shape: Round (dominant) versus wrinkled (recessive)
- Pod color: Yellow (dominant) versus green (recessive)
- Pod shape: Inflated (dominant) versus constricted (recessive)
Mendel's experiments involved cross-breeding pea plants with different traits and carefully analyzing the inheritance patterns of the offspring. His findings provided the basis for understanding the fundamental principles of genetics, including the concepts of alleles, dominance, segregation, and independent assortment.