Definition of Bacteria
Bacteria are unicellular, prokaryotic organisms, that lack a true nucleus and contain a few membrane-less cell organelles.
- Bacteria appear about 3.5 billion years ago on earth, hence they were the first organism on earth.
- Bacteria can be autotrophs or heterotrophs depends on the species. Some of them get their nutrition from photosynthesis whereas others get their nutrients from the host cell.
- Their size shape, color, and habitats are variable.
- There are threes shape of bacteria such as spherical (e.g., cocci), rod-shaped (e.g., Vibrio), and spiral (e.g., Spirochetes).
- They reproduce by binary fission or conjugation.
- Bacteria are divided into two groups based on their nature of cell walls such as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
- All bacteria are not pathogenic some of them are harmless or even beneficial.
- Some harmless or beneficial bacteria help in the decomposition of organic matters and also helps in the industrial processing of cheese, curd, and yogurt, or other fermented products.
- The harmful bacteria can cause tuberculosis, salmonella, strep throat, and spoilage of food.
- The components of bacteria are; Glycocalyx, Nucleoid, Pilus, Mesosomes, Flagellum, Cell Wall, Fimbriae, Inclusion/Granules, Ribosomes, Cell membrane, Endospore.
Definition of Fungi
Fungi are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that don’t produce their food on their own and are characterized by the chitinous cell wall.
- They appear on earth about 900 million years ago and are derived from the protists.
- They contain hyphae, it is a thread-like structure.
- They form mycelium when their hypha grows and forms a thick mass.
- They reproduce sexually as well asexually.
- Fungi get their nutrients from autotrophs and as well as from the dead and decaying materials.
- There are present both harmful and harmless fungi. The harmless fungi are used for the production of antibiotics or as a food and for making bread.
- In ecosystem, they help in the conversation of complex organic compounds to simple inorganic compounds.
- They can be free-living or may appear in a parasitic or symbiotic relationship with others.
- The components of fungi are; Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Mitochondria, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes and peroxisomes, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Cell Wall, Cytoplasmic Membrane/Plasma Membrane, and Ribosomes.
Key Differences Between Bacteria and Fungi
|Definition||Bacteria are unicellular, prokaryotic organisms, that lack a true nucleus and contain a few membrane-less cell organelles.||Fungi are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that don’t produce their food on their own and are characterized by the chitinous cell wall.|
|Prokaryotes/Eukaryotes||Bacteria are Prokaryotic cell.||Fungi are Eukaryotic cell.|
|Single-celled/Multi-celled||Bacteria are Single-celled.||Fungi are Multi-celled.|
|Cell wall Composition||Made up of peptidoglycan.||Made up of chitin.|
|Cell Membrane||Present below the cell wall.||Present.|
|Shapes||Three shapes are found such s spiral, round, and rod shape.||Vary in shapes, but most of them are in the form of the thread-like structure called hyphae.|
|Reproduction||Asexual.||Sexually or asexually.|
|Motility||Move through flagellum.||They are non-motile.|
|Derive energy from||Bacteria obtain energy from sugars, proteins, and fats.||Fungi obtain their energy from the used and pre-existing sources present in an environment.|
|Presence of sterol||Absent, except mycoplasma||Present in cell membrane.|
|Mode of nutrition||Can be autotrophs, but usually heterotrophs.||Heterotrophs, usually feed on the dead and decayed matter.|
|Optimum pH for Growth||Neutral 6.7- 7||Acidic Atmosphere 4-6|
|Producer/Decomposer||Can be both producer and decomposer||Decomposer|
|Resistance||Griseofulvin||Antibiotics such as Penicillium, chloramphenicol, etc.|
|Host||They do not need a host to grow.||They grow their own.|
|Disease caused by them||Tuberculosis, rabies, leprosy, tetanus, diphtheria, strep throat, leprosy, pertussis, cholera.||Athlete’s foot, aspergillosis, aspergilloma, allergic bronchopulmonary, etc.|
|Example||Coccus, Bacillus, Spirillum, Rickettsia, and Mycoplasma, etc.||yeasts, rusts, smuts, mildews, molds, and mushrooms.|