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20 Difference Between Bacteria and Fungi

MN Editors

Definition of Bacteria 

Bacteria are unicellular, prokaryotic organisms, that lack a true nucleus and contain a few membrane-less cell organelles.

  1. Bacteria appear about 3.5 billion years ago on earth, hence they were the first organism on earth.
  2. Bacteria can be autotrophs or heterotrophs depends on the species. Some of them get their nutrition from photosynthesis whereas others get their nutrients from the host cell.
  3. Their size shape, color, and habitats are variable.
  4. There are threes shape of bacteria such as spherical (e.g., cocci), rod-shaped (e.g., Vibrio), and spiral (e.g., Spirochetes).
  5. They reproduce by binary fission or conjugation.
  6. Bacteria are divided into two groups based on their nature of cell walls such as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
  7. All bacteria are not pathogenic some of them are harmless or even beneficial.
  8. Some harmless or beneficial bacteria help in the decomposition of organic matters and also helps in the industrial processing of cheese, curd, and yogurt, or other fermented products.
  9. The harmful bacteria can cause tuberculosis, salmonella, strep throat, and spoilage of food.
  10. The components of bacteria are; Glycocalyx, Nucleoid, Pilus, Mesosomes, Flagellum, Cell Wall, Fimbriae, Inclusion/Granules, Ribosomes, Cell membrane, Endospore.

Definition of Fungi

Fungi are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that don’t produce their food on their own and are characterized by the chitinous cell wall.

  • They appear on earth about 900 million years ago and are derived from the protists.
  • They contain hyphae, it is a thread-like structure.
  • They form mycelium when their hypha grows and forms a thick mass.
  • They reproduce sexually as well asexually.
  • Fungi get their nutrients from autotrophs and as well as from the dead and decaying materials.
  • There are present both harmful and harmless fungi. The harmless fungi are used for the production of antibiotics or as a food and for making bread.
  • In ecosystem, they help in the conversation of complex organic compounds to simple inorganic compounds.
  • They can be free-living or may appear in a parasitic or symbiotic relationship with others.
  • The components of fungi are; Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Mitochondria, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes and peroxisomes, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Cell Wall, Cytoplasmic Membrane/Plasma Membrane, and Ribosomes.

Key Differences Between Bacteria and Fungi

Topic Bacteria Fungi
Definition Bacteria are unicellular, prokaryotic organisms, that lack a true nucleus and contain a few membrane-less cell organelles. Fungi are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that don’t produce their food on their own and are characterized by the chitinous cell wall.
Prokaryotes/Eukaryotes Bacteria are Prokaryotic cell. Fungi are Eukaryotic cell.
Single-celled/Multi-celled Bacteria are Single-celled. Fungi are Multi-celled.
Organelles Absent Present
Nucleus Absent Present
Cell wall Composition Made up of peptidoglycan. Made up of chitin.
Cell Membrane Present below the cell wall. Present.
Shapes Three shapes are found such s spiral, round, and rod shape. Vary in shapes, but most of them are in the form of the thread-like structure called hyphae.
Reproduction Asexual. Sexually or asexually.
Motility Move through flagellum. They are non-motile.
Derive energy from Bacteria obtain energy from sugars, proteins, and fats. Fungi obtain their energy from the used and pre-existing sources present in an environment.
Presence of sterol Absent, except mycoplasma Present in cell membrane.
Mode of nutrition Can be autotrophs, but usually heterotrophs. Heterotrophs, usually feed on the dead and decayed matter.
Optimum pH for Growth Neutral 6.7- 7 Acidic Atmosphere 4-6
Producer/Decomposer Can be both producer and decomposer Decomposer
Resistance Griseofulvin Antibiotics such as Penicillium, chloramphenicol, etc.
Host They do not need a host to grow. They grow their own.
Disease caused by them Tuberculosis, rabies, leprosy, tetanus, diphtheria, strep throat, leprosy, pertussis, cholera. Athlete’s foot, aspergillosis, aspergilloma, allergic bronchopulmonary, etc.
Example Coccus, Bacillus, Spirillum, Rickettsia, and Mycoplasma, etc. yeasts, rusts, smuts, mildews, molds, and mushrooms.

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