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Difference between Plant cell and Animal cell – Plant cell vs Animal cell

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Table of Contents

What is Plant Cell?

Plants, algae, and some protists all contain plant cells because they are eukaryotic organisms. It’s different from animal cells in a number of ways.

  • Cells found in plants are eukaryotic, meaning they have a nucleus and other organelles surrounded by a membrane.
  • Common forms include rectangles and cubes.
  • Cellulose makes up the stiff cell wall that surrounds plant cells and serves to protect and strengthen the cell.
  • Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts, which are unique to plant cells and absent in animal cells.
  • Central vacuoles in plant cells are big and play an important function in cellular water regulation and nutrient storage.
  • Plasmodesmata are small tubes between plant cells that facilitate communication and the exchange of substances, and are absent in animal cells.
  • Peroxisomes are specialised organelles found within plant cells that play an important role in several metabolic processes, such as the oxidation of fatty acids and the elimination of toxins.
  • The nucleus of a plant cell carries the genetic material in the form of chromosomes, exactly like in animal cells.
  • Cell division is possible in plants and is controlled by many of the same processes that govern cell division in animals.
  • Plant cells have a variety of additional organelles, including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus, which carry out a wide range of metabolic and cellular functions.

Components of Plant Cell

  1. Cell wall: The cell wall is a rigid layer surrounding the cell that provides structural support and protection.
  2. Plasma membrane: The plasma membrane is a selectively permeable barrier that surrounds the cell and regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cell.
  3. Nucleus: The nucleus is the control center of the cell that contains the genetic material in the form of chromosomes.
  4. Cytoplasm: The cytoplasm is the fluid-filled space inside the cell where most of the cellular processes take place.
  5. Mitochondria: Mitochondria are organelles that generate energy for the cell through cellular respiration.
  6. Chloroplasts: Chloroplasts are specialized organelles that carry out photosynthesis and are responsible for the green color of plant cells.
  7. Endoplasmic reticulum: The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membrane-bound channels and sacs that are involved in protein and lipid synthesis.
  8. Golgi apparatus: The Golgi apparatus is an organelle that is responsible for modifying, sorting, and packaging proteins and lipids for transport to their final destinations.
  9. Vacuole: The vacuole is a large organelle that plays a key role in regulating water balance, storing nutrients, and providing structural support.
  10. Ribosomes: Ribosomes are tiny organelles that are responsible for protein synthesis.
  11. Peroxisomes: Peroxisomes are small organelles that are involved in various metabolic processes, including the breakdown of fatty acids and the detoxification of harmful substances.
  12. Plasmodesmata: Plasmodesmata are narrow channels that connect adjacent plant cells and allow for communication and transport of materials between cells.

What is Animal cell?

An animal cell is a type of eukaryotic cell that is found in animals and humans. It has a number of unique features that distinguish it from plant cells.

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  1. Animal cells are eukaryotic cells, meaning they have a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.
  2. They are typically round or irregularly shaped in structure.
  3. Unlike plant cells, animal cells do not have a cell wall, but instead have a plasma membrane that regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cell.
  4. Animal cells have a variety of organelles, including mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and peroxisomes, that carry out a wide range of metabolic and cellular processes.
  5. The nucleus of an animal cell contains the genetic material in the form of chromosomes, just like in plant cells.
  6. Animal cells are capable of cell division, and this process is regulated by the same basic mechanisms as in plant cells.
  7. Animal cells contain specialized organelles called centrosomes, which play a key role in cell division.
  8. Unlike plant cells, animal cells do not have chloroplasts, but instead obtain energy through the process of cellular respiration, which takes place in the mitochondria.
  9. Animal cells contain a cytoskeleton, a network of protein fibers that provides structural support and helps to maintain cell shape.
  10. Animal cells communicate with each other through a variety of mechanisms, including chemical signals and gap junctions, which allow for direct communication between adjacent cells.

Components of Plant Cell

  1. Plasma membrane: The plasma membrane is a selectively permeable barrier that surrounds the cell and regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cell.
  2. Nucleus: The nucleus is the control center of the cell that contains the genetic material in the form of chromosomes.
  3. Cytoplasm: The cytoplasm is the fluid-filled space inside the cell where most of the cellular processes take place.
  4. Mitochondria: Mitochondria are organelles that generate energy for the cell through cellular respiration.
  5. Endoplasmic reticulum: The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membrane-bound channels and sacs that are involved in protein and lipid synthesis.
  6. Golgi apparatus: The Golgi apparatus is an organelle that is responsible for modifying, sorting, and packaging proteins and lipids for transport to their final destinations.
  7. Lysosomes: Lysosomes are specialized organelles that contain digestive enzymes and are involved in the breakdown of waste materials and cellular debris.
  8. Peroxisomes: Peroxisomes are small organelles that are involved in various metabolic processes, including the breakdown of fatty acids and the detoxification of harmful substances.
  9. Ribosomes: Ribosomes are tiny organelles that are responsible for protein synthesis.
  10. Cytoskeleton: The cytoskeleton is a network of protein fibers that provides structural support and helps to maintain cell shape.
  11. Centrosomes: Centrosomes are specialized organelles that are involved in cell division and the organization of microtubules.
  12. Flagella and Cilia: Some animal cells have flagella or cilia, which are structures that are involved in movement and cellular communication.

Similarities between plants and animals cells

  • Both contain the cell membrane or plasma membrane.
  • Both contain Ribosomes.
  • Both have endoplasmic Reticulum.
  • Each has a distinct nucleus and the cytoplasm. Genetic material DNA is covered by the nuclear membrane.

Differences Between Animal Cells and Plant Cells

CharacteristicCellular animalPlant cell
DefinitionCells of animals are the most fundamental vital organelle of animals, forming all organelles of the cell which carry out a range of tasks to aid in the animal metabolism.Plant cells are the fundamental functional cells of plants, forming the cell organelles that perform many functions to support the plants metabolism.
Shape and sizeAnimal cells are typically smaller than plants cells with their cells ranging between 10 and 30um in length.The shape and size of animal cells differ greatly, ranging from irregular to circular shapes, largely determined by the task they serve.Plant cells are more massive than animal cells with cell size ranging between 10um and 100um in length.Plant cells are alike in shape, with the majority of cells being cube-shaped or rectangular.
The cell wallThey do not have a cell wall, however they possess the plasma (cell) membrane that is responsible for supporting and protecting the cell from external harm.It also plays a significant part in permeability that allows selective flow and expulsion of water molecules, nutrient molecules and other cell components.They are both equipped with cells with a wall comprised of cell membranes and cellulose. The cell wall is an elastic membrane located on the outside in all cells. Its principal function is to safeguard the cells and their contents.
Plasma membraneThey are covered by the plasma membrane, which is a thin, flexible membrane that functions as a shield on the cells of the animal.It also has a selective permeability.The presence of the plasma membrane, composed of cellulose located just below the cell wall, allows for selective permeability of cell contents in and from the cell’s the cytoplasm.
CytoplasmIt is home to all organelles of the cell.It houses the majority of organelles of the cell.
RibosomesThey are found in nature and used in the synthesis of proteins and for genetic codification of amino acid sequences.They are in the body and are employed in protein synthesis and cell repair mechanisms.
Endoplasmic ReticulumThey exist in two forms that are smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulumThey exist in two varieties: smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum
LysosomesAnimal cells contain lysosomes with digestive enzymes, which disintegrate macromolecules within the cell.Lysosomes are not a common feature in plant cells because the plant vacuole and the Golgi body manage the degradation of cell waste.
VacuolesAnimal cells could have many small vacuolesthat are smaller than those of a plant cell.Plant cells possess a huge central vacuole, which can take up the majority in the cells volume.
NucleusPresent and is situated in the middle of the cell.Present and it’s to the right of the cell.
NucleolusThe nucleus is located in the nucleus.The nucleus is located in the nucleus.
CentriolesThey play a principal function being the aid in the process of cell division.They are not present in plant cells.
PeroxisomesThey are found in the cells.They play a role in the oxidation process for particular biomolecules, and they aid in the production of plasmalogen lipids.They reside in the cell’s cytoplasm, acting as cell oxidizers to cell molecules, as well as for the synthesis of lipids, as well as recovering carbon from the phosphoglycolate through photorespiration.
Microfilaments and microtubulesThey serve as support for the cell’s cytoskeleton and to transporting materials through the cytoplasm through and out of the nucleus. They also participate in the process of cytokinesis.They’re present for cytoskeletal support as well as transport of molecules across the nucleus and the cytoplasm and play a significant part in the process of cytokinesis.
CytoskeletonsPresently, its main roles include creating a network that helps organise the cells components and keeps the shape of cells.They possess a cytoskeleton which keeps the shape of the plant cell and supports the cell’s cytoplasm, and preserves the structure of the cell.
CytosolIt is where all organelles of the cell are suspended.It’s also where the majority of the organelles in cells are suspended.
MicrovilliThey are found inside the intestinal lining, which helps increase the surface area that is needed for an absorption process of the food.In plant cells, it is not present.
GranulesPresentPresent
Cilia and FilamentsThey permit the movement of cells or a portion that is a cell like swimming of the Sperm towards the ova.Absent in plants
PlastidsAbsentPresently, they provide pigmentation in the plant and help in the trapping of the light energy needed for photosynthesis.
PlasmodesmataAbsentPresently, they aid in the transfer of plant cells with materials.
Golgi bodiesThey have bigger and less Golgi bodies, with their primary purpose is to process and package macromolecules of lipid and protein as they are synthesized.They are smaller, but have larger Golgi bodies, their main purpose being processing, modification sorting, packaging and sorting proteins that are used for the secretion of cellular proteins.
Synthesis of nutrients in the cellular systemThey are not able to synthesize amino acid or vitamins. They also cannot make coenzymes, coenzymes, and vitamins.They are able to synthesize amino acids Vitamins, amino acids, and vitamins.
CytokinesisIt occurs through constrictionIt is a part of the cells
Osmosis in an hypotonic solutionThey absorb water molecules through osmosis. They quickly explode when placed in hypotonic solutions because of the absence of an outer cell wallThe cells absorb the water molecules through Osmosis, but they don’t explode in hypotonic solutions because of cells with a wall.

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