Difference between Plant cell and Animal cell – Plant cell vs Animal cell

The fact that they are both cells that are eukaryotic, meaning they have a real nucleus that is enclosed and separate from...

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This article writter by MN Editors on January 14, 2022

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Difference between Plant cell and Animal cell - Plant cell vs Animal cell
Difference between Plant cell and Animal cell - Plant cell vs Animal cell

Animals and plants comprise millions of cells. These cells share many similarities and distinctions.

The fact that they are both cells that are eukaryotic, meaning they have a real nucleus that is enclosed and separate from other organelles through a nuclear membrane is a key element which determines their ways of multiplication. They share the same reproduction process of meiosis and mitosis by using their DNA, which is stored in the cell’s nucleus.

What are plant cells and animal cells?

They are also membrane-bound and have several organelles that share similar, if not identical mechanisms for maintaining and controlling the normal functioning of cells. The organelles are the Nucleus, Golgi bodies the endoplasmic-reticulum, ribosomes mitochondria and cytoskeleton, as well as peroxisomes along with the cell’s membrane.

They also participate in cells respiration, which carries out procedures of energy production to expand the cell as well as maintain its normal function.

Despite sharing many of these features, they do have some variations too.

Structurally, animal and plant cells are similar in that they are both cells that are eukaryotic. They share membrane-bound organelles like mitochondria, nucleus Golgi apparatus, the endoplasmic-reticulum as well as lysosomes and peroxisomes. They also share similar membranes, cytosols, and cytoskeletal components. The roles of these organelles are quite similar between the two types of cells (peroxisomes have additional functions in plants that have to do with deal with the process of cell respiration). The few distinctions between animals and plants are extremely significant and show an underlying difference in the function of every cell.

Similarities between plants and animals cells

  • Both contain the cell membrane or plasma membrane.
  • Both contain Ribosomes.
  • Both have endoplasmic Reticulum.
  • Each has a distinct nucleus and the cytoplasm. Genetic material DNA is covered by the nuclear membrane.

Differences Between Animal Cells and Plant Cells

CharacteristicCellular animalPlant cell
DefinitionCells of animals are the most fundamental vital organelle of animals, forming all organelles of the cell which carry out a range of tasks to aid in the animal metabolism.Plant cells are the fundamental functional cells of plants, forming the cell organelles that perform many functions to support the plants metabolism.
Shape and sizeAnimal cells are typically smaller than plants cells with their cells ranging between 10 and 30um in length.The shape and size of animal cells differ greatly, ranging from irregular to circular shapes, largely determined by the task they serve.Plant cells are more massive than animal cells with cell size ranging between 10um and 100um in length.Plant cells are alike in shape, with the majority of cells being cube-shaped or rectangular.
The cell wallThey do not have a cell wall, however they possess the plasma (cell) membrane that is responsible for supporting and protecting the cell from external harm.It also plays a significant part in permeability that allows selective flow and expulsion of water molecules, nutrient molecules and other cell components.They are both equipped with cells with a wall comprised of cell membranes and cellulose. The cell wall is an elastic membrane located on the outside in all cells. Its principal function is to safeguard the cells and their contents.
Plasma membraneThey are covered by the plasma membrane, which is a thin, flexible membrane that functions as a shield on the cells of the animal.It also has a selective permeability.The presence of the plasma membrane, composed of cellulose located just below the cell wall, allows for selective permeability of cell contents in and from the cell’s the cytoplasm.
CytoplasmIt is home to all organelles of the cell.It houses the majority of organelles of the cell.
RibosomesThey are found in nature and used in the synthesis of proteins and for genetic codification of amino acid sequences.They are in the body and are employed in protein synthesis and cell repair mechanisms.
Endoplasmic ReticulumThey exist in two forms that are smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulumThey exist in two varieties: smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum
LysosomesAnimal cells contain lysosomes with digestive enzymes, which disintegrate macromolecules within the cell.Lysosomes are not a common feature in plant cells because the plant vacuole and the Golgi body manage the degradation of cell waste.
VacuolesAnimal cells could have many small vacuolesthat are smaller than those of a plant cell.Plant cells possess a huge central vacuole, which can take up the majority in the cells volume.
NucleusPresent and is situated in the middle of the cell.Present and it’s to the right of the cell.
NucleolusThe nucleus is located in the nucleus.The nucleus is located in the nucleus.
CentriolesThey play a principal function being the aid in the process of cell division.They are not present in plant cells.
PeroxisomesThey are found in the cells.They play a role in the oxidation process for particular biomolecules, and they aid in the production of plasmalogen lipids.They reside in the cell’s cytoplasm, acting as cell oxidizers to cell molecules, as well as for the synthesis of lipids, as well as recovering carbon from the phosphoglycolate through photorespiration.
Microfilaments and microtubulesThey serve as support for the cell’s cytoskeleton and to transporting materials through the cytoplasm through and out of the nucleus. They also participate in the process of cytokinesis.They’re present for cytoskeletal support as well as transport of molecules across the nucleus and the cytoplasm and play a significant part in the process of cytokinesis.
CytoskeletonsPresently, its main roles include creating a network that helps organise the cells components and keeps the shape of cells.They possess a cytoskeleton which keeps the shape of the plant cell and supports the cell’s cytoplasm, and preserves the structure of the cell.
CytosolIt is where all organelles of the cell are suspended.It’s also where the majority of the organelles in cells are suspended.
MicrovilliThey are found inside the intestinal lining, which helps increase the surface area that is needed for an absorption process of the food.In plant cells, it is not present.
Cilia and FilamentsThey permit the movement of cells or a portion that is a cell like swimming of the Sperm towards the ova.Absent in plants
PlastidsAbsentPresently, they provide pigmentation in the plant and help in the trapping of the light energy needed for photosynthesis.
PlasmodesmataAbsentPresently, they aid in the transfer of plant cells with materials.
Golgi bodiesThey have bigger and less Golgi bodies, with their primary purpose is to process and package macromolecules of lipid and protein as they are synthesized.They are smaller, but have larger Golgi bodies, their main purpose being processing, modification sorting, packaging and sorting proteins that are used for the secretion of cellular proteins.
Synthesis of nutrients in the cellular systemThey are not able to synthesize amino acid or vitamins. They also cannot make coenzymes, coenzymes, and vitamins.They are able to synthesize amino acids Vitamins, amino acids, and vitamins.
CytokinesisIt occurs through constrictionIt is a part of the cells
Osmosis in an hypotonic solutionThey absorb water molecules through osmosis. They quickly explode when placed in hypotonic solutions because of the absence of an outer cell wallThe cells absorb the water molecules through Osmosis, but they don’t explode in hypotonic solutions because of cells with a wall.
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Microbiology Notes is an educational niche blog related to microbiology (bacteriology, virology, parasitology, mycology, immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, etc.) and different branches of biology.

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