Differences between Angiosperm and Gymnosperm – Angiosperm vs Gymnosperm


Table of Contents

Definition of Angiosperm 

Angiosperms are flowering plants which are the biggest and the most diverse group of plants within the kingdom of Plantae.

  • These plants comprise about the majority of living things on earth.
  • Angiosperms can be found in a variety of all kinds of environments, from mountains to deep-sea surface to deserts.
  • They are vascular plants which produce seeds and flowers. They are available in many varieties, including trees, herbs or shrubs.
  • Flowers are the organ of reproduction that plants have, and it is composed of female and male reproductive organs.
  • After fertilization, the flowers develop into fruit. Seeds are formed and then encased within fruit. In relation to the amount of leaves for seeds Angiosperms are classified into dicotyledons and monocotyledons.
  • The tissues and cells of angiosperms have been specialized to carry out various functions in the plant.
  • The plants are equipped with specialized vessels, xylem and phloem which aid in the transport of minerals, water, and food items to different parts in the plants.
  • Because the plants of angiosperm are so varied, their size differs within the group, with the most flowering plants reaching as high at 100 meters, while the smallest being just two millimeters.
  • Most flowering plants are woody or herbaceous. Some are annuals while others are biennials.
  • They develop the vegetative part of the plant in the beginning of their development, while reproductive parts of the plant, such as flowers, are created later.
  • The fundamental structure of every angiosperms is made up of the stem, roots and leaves.
  • Angiosperms have an elongated taproot as well as a fibrous root system. Both develop vertically downwards.
  • From the taproot it is possible to form lateral roots that can grow vertically or diagonally.
  • In the fibrous root however, the primary roots can be much longer than the secondary roots, and may even be longer than the primary root.
  • Its stem forms the primary part of the plant which is the one that bears the flowers and leaves.
  • The leaves vary in kinds and are in contact with the stem. The leaves may be reticulate or have parallel veins.

Examples of Angiosperm


It is globally distributed with over 350 genera. It is found primarily in the temperate zone that is located in northern Europe. Mustard is a crop that is cool-season that is able to be grown in shorter growing seasons. Though the seedlings are resistant to mild frost extreme frosts could destroy the plant. Mustard plants begin to flower within about 5 weeks after plant. The flowers are bright yellow and draw pollinators to.

The flower develops into the form of a fruit that has mustard seeds in it. Mustard seeds and oils are traditionally used to alleviate arthritis pain, muscle pain and Rheumatism. The oil is extensively used throughout Indian, Pakistani, and German cooking. Mustard is consumed in whole seeds, ground or powdered, or through the preparation of pastes, sauces, or sauces to use in the kitchen.



The roses comprise the third-largest of the family of plants, with more than 30000 species of roses across the globe. There are many varieties of roses with a range of colors ranging from red shades to yellow to pink. The scents of roses are distinct and depend on the climate in the time of their bloom. The bright flowers of roses attract insects, which assists in pollination. When fertilized, the flower transforms into fruit that contain many seeds.

It can take between 6 and 8 weeks after the plant is planted during the spring time for the flower to bloom. The roses are cultivated by transplanting rather than seeds since the viability of the plants increase by the process of grafting. The roses are ornamental plants that are exclusively used for decoration. Certain varieties of roses are used to extract and make perfumes.


Gymnosperm Definition

Gymnosperms are vascular plant species which have naked or exposed seeds that aren’t even visible until the time of maturity.

  • Gynosperm seeds are usually found in the form cones.
  • The tissues and cells of angiosperms are designed to perform various functions in the plant.
  • The plants are equipped with specialized vessels, xylem and phloem which aid in the transport of minerals, water, and food to the different areas in the plants.
  • In the majority of gymnosperms, male pollen cones, known as microstrobili, are characterized by smaller leaves, also known as microsporophylls.
  • The pollen sacs, sometimes called microsporangia, form at the base of microsporophylls.
  • Female cones are referred to as megastrobili. They could be located on the same plant as male cones, or on another plant.
  • Megastrobili, like microstrobili, also have leaves that are smaller, known as megasporophylls, which contain megasporangium.
  • Within the sporangium cells go through meiotic division and form haploid cells , which can then be dispersed through various ways to fertilize.
  • The embryo after fertilization grows and is able to have at least two cotyledons. Plants such as Cycads contain two cotyledons. Pine as well as other conifers could have multiple (8-18) the cotyledons.
  • Plant seeds aren’t covered in fruit, and they do not grow into fruit. In fact, they are open as cones.
  • The gymnosperm’s basic structure is like angiosperm comprised of the stem, roots and leaves.
  • Gynosperm leaves are needle-like or scale-like, whereas the leaves are mostly made of wood.
  • The root system could be a taproot, or a fibrous system based upon the species of plant.

Examples of Gymnosperms


Conifers are cone-shaped woody seed plants with vascular tissues the majority of them are the trees and some shrubs, and comprise the majority of gymnosperms. Coniferous plants spread out in a triangular shape with distinctive long and pointed needle-shaped leaves. Conifers can be found in all over the globe. But, they are most notable for their ability to dominate the boreal forests in the northern southern hemisphere.

Megastrobilis is the female reproductive organs, which after fertilization, forms cones that contain exposed seeds. They’re economically important since they are used for softwood that is used exclusively for the preparation of timber and paper. They are essential in the cultivation of pine nuts. Conifers that stand out are redwoods, yews and pines and cedars.



Cycads are a small species that are distributed throughout the western and the eastern hemisphere. Their appearance is comprised of an unidirectional, stout circular, woody trunk as well as an elongated crown of evergreen, hard, stiff compound leaves that develop into a rosette. Cycads are deciduous. They are unique in cycads that they do not form seeds in female plants, instead they form an entire leaf-life structures (megasporophyll) which has seed in males.

A variety of species of cycads like C. Cirinalis, C. bedomei are planted to be ornamental in the gardens. From the stems of certain species, a form of starch, commonly referred to as’sago which is the reason for the name of sago palm. Hats, baskets mats, and hats are made using the leaves of C. Revoluta. The leaves can also used to decorate flowers and for other decorative uses.


Differences between Angiosperm and Gymnosperm (Angiosperm vs Gymnosperm)

Basis for ComparisonAngiospermGymnosperm
DefinitionAngiosperms are flowering plants which are the biggest and diverse collection of plants within the kingdom of Plantae.Gymnosperms are plants with vascular roots with naked or exposed seeds that are not visible until they reach maturity.
SeedThe seeds are housed in an ovary, which develops into the fruit.Seeds are exposed and may appear in the shape of cones.
FlowersThese are plants that bloom which is why they have flowers.These are plants that aren’t flowering therefore they do not have flowers.
Reproductive SystemThe majority of them are bisexual. However, there are some who may be unisexual.The majority of them are unisexual. However, there are some who may be bisexual.
StemThe stem is comprised of wood.The stem is comprised of softwood.
LeavesThe leaves on these plants are wide and flat.The leaves are scale-like or needle-like.
XylemXylem creates vessels in angiosperms.The Xylem cells do not form vessels in gymnosperms.
StructureSepals and petals are in evidence.
Sporophylls are a good source of thalamus.
The female reproductive part has been transformed into the carpel.
Style and stigma are evident.
Microsporophyll can be found as stamen. Stamens are later divided in an anther as well as filament.
The carpel’s ovary is a reservoir of ovules, which are joined via placenta.
Ovules are found on the stalk.
A thin layer of micropyle cover an Ovule.
The majority of angiosperms contain four pollen sacs, or microsporangia.
Sepal and petals are missing.
Sporophylls possess a long, elongated Axis.
The female reproductive portion is built into a wooden structure.
Gymnosperms don’t have the stigma or style.
Microsporophylls are characterized by the broad head of sterile sperm where there is no difference between the anther or the filament.
The ovules of gymnosperms are located on the megasporophyll but there is no placenta.
Gynosperm ovules are sessile.
A total of three micropyles cover an Ovule.
Microsporangia numbers range between two and hundreds.
Male gameteThe male gamete is devoid of flagella and therefore is placed on the egg.Flagella is the male gamete’s characteristic which allows it to swim towards the egg.
Embryo sacThe embryo sac has seven cells and has eight nucleated.It is parenchymatous, and huge.
ArchegoniaAngiosperms do not have archegonia.Gymnosperms contain distinct archegonia.
CotyledonsThe seeds contain at least one or more cotyledons.The seeds are made up of two or more cotyledons.
EndospermThe endosperm is triploid.The endosperm’s endosperm is haploid.
DispersionThe most common method of dispersion are animals.The most common method of dispersion is wind.
FertilizationDouble fertilization is when both male gametes are functioning. One of them performs the generative fertilization while the other is performing vegetative fertilization.Only one kind of fertilization is produced with only one gamete male can be used.
Seed developmentThe embryo is developed in the ovary and develops into the fruit.The embryo grows on the megasporophyll. No fruit is created.
LifecycleThey are mostly seasonal plants. Some could be perennials or biennials.A majority of these plants are evergreen plants.
UsesThe majority of angiosperms are economically valuable because they are used to decorate or ornament.The majority of gymnosperms produce softwood, which can be used to create plywood, paper, or lumber.
ExamplesMustard, Rose, Spinach, Cauliflower, etc.Pine, Cycad, Sago palm, Sequoia, etc.

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