Staphylococcus is an genus of Gram-positive bacteriophages within the family of Staphylococcaceae of the family of Bacillales. Under microscope they appear to be as spherical (cocci) and are found clusters that resemble grapes. Staphylococcus species are anaerobic, facultative organisms (capable of growth anaerobically and aerobically).
The name was first coined around 1880, through Scottish surgeon and scientist Alexander Ogston (1844-1929), following the same pattern that was established five years before with the name Streptococcus. It is a combination of with the suffix “staphylo-” and the suffix “coccus” by”coccus” Modern Latin: coccus, which means. “spherical bacterium’ (from Ancient Greek: kokkos romanized as kokkos meaning. ‘grain, seed, berry’).
Staphylococcus comprises at least 40 species. Of those nine, two have subspecies One has three subspecies and the other is divided into four species. A number of species are not able to cause illness and are found on the mucous membranes of human beings and other animals. Staphylococcus is one of them. It has been identified to be nectar-loving microbes. They are also a tiny part of soil microbiome.
There are two species from Staphylococcus (Staphylococcus epidermidis as well as Staphylococcus arlettae) discovered from marine sponges found on Saint Martin’s Island of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Marine sponges are associated with Staphylococcus species are extremely salt-tolerant.
Streptococcus is the name given to a species that includes the gram-positive cocci (plural cocci) or spherical bacterium that is part of the family of Streptococcaceae which is part of the classification of Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria) and the family of Firmicutes. Cell division in streptococci happens on a single axis which is why, as they grow they are likely to create chains or pairs that appear bent or twisting. This is in contrast to staphylococci that divide across multiple axes, producing irregular, like grape clusters. Most streptococci have oxidase negative and catalase-negative. Many have facultative anaerobes (capable to grow in an aerobic and anaerobically).
The term was first coined around 1877, by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) by combining with the suffix “strepto–” (from Ancient Greek: streptos romanized as streptos, meaning. “‘pliantly twisting, easily bent’) in conjunction with the suffix “-coccus” (from Modern Latin: coccus, derived from Ancient Greek: kokkos, romanized as kokkos, meaning. ‘grain, seed, berry’.) In 1984, numerous bacteria previously grouped within the group of Streptococcus were split into two genera: Enterococcus as well as Lactococcus. Today, more than 50 species have been identified within this Genus. The genus has been discovered as a part of salivary microbiome.