What are Microscopes? – Definition of Microscope
- A microscope is a laboratory optical instrument, which is used to examine or study or see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
- There are present different types of microscopes, such as; light microscopes, Electron microscopes, Scanning probe microscopes, Fluorescence microscopes, Super-resolution microscopes, and X-ray microscopes.
- Microscopes are creat an image of the sample or specimen and then send it as a beam of light or electrons to its optical path, or by scanning across, and a short distance from the surface of a sample using a probe.
- In the laboratory, Microscopes are used to visualize minute objects, for example; plant cell, animal cell, bacteria, fungi, etc.
- All microscopes of high grade have achromatic, parcentered, parfocal lenses.
- Microscopes consist of different types and numbers of magnifying lenses.
- A Microscopes are made up of two parts, the holding part which supports the microscopes and its components, and the optical part which is used for magnification and viewing of the specimen images.
- They contain 2 systems of lenses, one is eyepiece and the other is one or more objective lenses.
Type of Microscopes
There are present mainly 3 types of Microscopes. They are classified based on their working principle and uses.
- Optical Microscopes: Optical Microscope Also Known as Light Microscope. There are present two types of optical Microscope such as;
- Simple microscope
- Compound microscope (Contain two sets of lenses)
- Electron microscopes: There are two main types of electron microscope;
- The Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
- The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
- Scanning probe microscopes
Except for these three types, there are also present other types of microscopes such as X-ray microscopes, ultrasonic microscopes, etc.
What is Stereo microscope?
Using a stereo microscope, one can observe and analyse the three-dimensional structure of an object. There are two goals, one on either side of the stage. The stereo microscope is comprised of a pair of eyepieces, a base, and a stand with a stage.
The objective lens focuses the specimen’s light rays onto the eyepiece. In front of the eyepieces is a convex lens, which causes the image to seem inverted. This picture is then focussed by a lens known as the ocular lens.
*Modern microscopes are equipped with digital cameras, which can take pictures of the specimens. These pictures are then displayed on a monitor.
General Working Principle of Microscopes
In a microscope, light rays first passed through the specimen and then is transmitted through two sets of lenses, the objective, which is nearest to the specimen, and the eyepiece, which is further away from the specimen.
The magnified image of the specimen is first produced by the objective. This is known as the primary image. The eyepiece then magnifies the primary image into the final one that is seen by the observer. The total magnification obtainable by the microscopes is the product of the magnification of the objective and that of the eyepiece. Examples are given below:
|Objective magnification||Eyepiece magnification||Total magnification|
Applications of Microscopes
- To study protein interaction or protein conformation.
- To Study the membrane dynamics.
- To study the concentration of calcium ion and pH changes.
- To Determine the shape of cells and intercellular structure.
- To determine the localization of specific proteins.
- To Study the Dynamics of protein.
- To study the iron concentration.
- Microscopes also used in forensic laboratories.
- Used in counting of blood cells.
The microscope parts are divided into two main categories, such as;
- Structural parts of microscope
- Optical parts of microscope
|Structural parts of a microscope||Microscope Part’s Function|
|Head||The head portion or body tube of microscope connects the eyepiece to the objective lenses.|
|Arm||The arm Supports the head or body tube and connects it to the base of the microscopes.|
|Base||The bottom portion of Microscopes on which the arm portion is standing. It holds all the essential components.|
Structural parts of a microscope and their functions
The structural parts of microscope provide supports and connecting all the components of microscope. There are present three important structural parts of microscope such as;
- It is located at the upper portion of microscope. The head portion of microscope is also known as the Body tube.
- The head portion or body tube of microscope connects the eyepiece to the objective lenses.
- It refers to the holding portion of a microscope, which is used to carry the microscopes.
- Few high-quality microscopes contain an articulated arm with more than one joint allowing more movement of the microscopic head for better viewing.
- The arm Supports the head or body tube and connects it to the base of the microscopes.
- The bottom portion of Microscopes on which the arm portion is standing. It holds all the essential components.
- The Base portion provides support to the microscope.
Optical parts of a microscope and their functions
|Optical parts of a microscope||Function|
|Eyepiece||Help the viewer to see the magnified specimen.|
Helps to magnify the image of specimens.
It corrects the defects of the objective.
|Eyepiece tube||connects the eyepiece and ocular lens to the objective lenses|
|Nosepiece||It holds 2 -3 objective lense.|
|Microscope Objective lenses||Helps to increase the magnification levels of specimen image.|
Together the light rays coming from any point of the objects.
To unite the light at a point of the image.
|The Adjustment knobs||A coarse adjustment knob is used to focus the microscope. It is always used first, and it is used only with the low power objective.|
The fine adjustment knob is used to focus the microscope. It is used with the high power objective to bring the specimen into better focus
|Stage||The test specimen is placed over it for viewing.|
|Stage clips||It holds the specimen slides in place.|
|Aperture||Through Aperture the base (transmitted) light reaches the stage.|
|Microscopic illuminator||light sources for Microscope.|
|Condenser||The condenser helps to collect and focus the light from the illuminator on to the specimen.|
|Diaphragm||Diaphragm is used to vary the intensity and size of the cone of light that is projected upward into the slide.|
The optical part of the Microscope plays an important role to magnify the object. It consists of the following components;
- Eyepiece consists of two lenses, the ocular(The first one, near the eye) and eyepiece (The last one, away from the eye).
- This part of microscope is also known as ocular.
- Eyepiece is located at the top of the microscope.
- The magnifying power of an ocular lens varies from 5x to 30x, but normally 10X or 15X magnifying power is used.
- To get the total magnification level, multiply the magnification of the objective used (ex: 10X eyepiece * 40X objective = 400X total magnification).
Types of Eyepiece:
Several types of ocular are employed depending upon the kind of objective located on the microscope those most commonly used are;
- Huygenian: In this type of eyepiece to simple Plano-convex lenses are employed the convex surfaces of both lenses face downward oculars in this group are spoken as negative eyepiece
- Hyperplane: Oculars of this type are referred to as hyperplane Planoscopic, periplane, etc. They may be employed with the high power achromatic, Fluorite, and apochromatic objectives without introducing chromatic aberrations in the image.
- Compensating: Ocular of this type consists of achromatic triplet combination of lens. These eye-piece are more perfectly corrected than are those of huygenion and hyperplane types.
- Help the viewer to see the magnified specimen.
- Helps to magnify the image of specimens.
- It corrects the defects of the objective.
2. Eyepiece tube
- These microscope parts are located above the head portion.
- In binoculars, microscope Eyepiece tube is flexible and can for maximum visualization, for variance in distance.
- In monocular microscopes, the Eyepiece tube is none flexible.
- connects the eyepiece and ocular lens to the objective lenses
- Nosepiece is located below the Eyepiece tube.
- It is also known as a revolving turret.
- It can rotate to adjust the objective lens.
- It holds 2 -3 objective lense.
4. Microscope Objective lenses
- Objective lenses are located below the Nosepiece.
- Usually, you can find 3 or 4 objective lenses on a microscope.
- Commonly there are present 4 types of objective lenses with different magnification power such as 4X, 10X, 40X, and 100X.
- If we use a 4x Objective lens with a 10x eyepiece (most common), then the total magnification power will be 40x(4×10), In similarly way the total magnification power of other lenses will be 100x(10×10), 400x(40×10), and 1000x(100×10).
- There are three kinds of objective lenses 4X (scanning objective) 10X (Low power objective lens). 40X (High power objective lens). 100X (Oil immersion objective lens).
- When the microscope is put away after use, the scanning objective or the 4x objective should be locked into place in the rotating nose piece. The stage should be in the middle, and the objectives should be rolled up and away from the stage.
It is the characteristic of a lens that determines how much light may enter. Theta is the angle of the cone of light entering an objective.
NA=nsinθ ; NA=numerical aperture
n equals the refractive index of the imaging medium between the objective’s front lens and the specimen cover glass, which ranges from 1.00 for air to 1.51 for specialty immersion oils.
θ= one-half of the angular aperture (A)
A measurement of the diameter of the aperture in relation to the focal length of a lens and, ultimately, a microscope’s resolving capacity. Objective lenses on high-quality microscopes typically have a large numerical aperture. Objective lenses on high-quality microscopes typically have a large numerical aperture.
CoverSlip or cover glass: A thin, square piece of glass or plastic that is placed over a microscope slide’s specimen.
Types of Objective lenses:
There are three types of objective lens;
- Achromatic: The achroma are the simplest in construction and the least expensive. The control of oberrations becomes more difficult when the power is increased.
- Fluorite: This is also called semi apochromatic aberrations are largely eliminated by the use of flurite objectives.
- Apochromatic: This is the costly objective lens with respect to other lenses and it has the power to correct aggeration highly perfect.
- Helps to increase the magnification levels of specimen image.
- Together the light rays coming from any point of the objects.
- To unite the light at a point of the image.
5. The Adjustment knobs
- The Adjustment knobs are located over the Objective lenses.
- There are two Adjustment knobs such as Coarse focus knob and Fine adjustment knob.
- The Coarse focus knob is located at the right side of Microscope.
- The Fine adjustment knob is located at the left side of Microscope.
- The first dial used to bring a specimen into focus is the Coarse focus knob.
- The second dial used to bring a specimen into focus is the fine focus knob.
Note: The fine adjustment knob is utilised for all focusing when using high-power lenses and to bring the specimen into sharp focus when using low power.
What is Working Distance? The working distance of an objective is the distance between the front surface of the lens and the cover glass or specimen surface when both are in sharp focus.
- Stage is a flat platform located below the objective lense, means between base and objective lens.
- Most of the microscope contains a mechanical stage, which has two knobs to control the slide.
- One knob moves the slide left and right, the other moves it forward and backward.
- The test specimen is placed over it for viewing.
7. Stage clips
- It is located over the stage.
- Each microscope contains two Stage clips.
- It holds the specimen slides in place.
- It is a hole in stage, which is located below the objective lense.
- Through Aperture the base (transmitted) light reaches the stage.
9. Microscopic illuminator or Built-In Light Source
- Microscopic illuminator located at the base.
- Optical Microscopes contain an internal light source or Built-In Light Source known as an illuminator.
- This light source illuminates specimens for viewing under a microscope.
- There are three principal varieties of optical microscopes:
- Transmitted light microscope – Illuminates the item with transmitted light.
- Reflected light microscope – Illuminates the item using reflected light
- Epi-lit microscope – The object is illuminated by epi-illumination.
- When an additional light source is utilised to illuminate the sample, this is known as epi-illumination.
- When using transmitted light, the light is gathered by the objective lens after passing through the object.
- When using reflected light, the light is focused on the objective lens after bouncing off the object’s surface.
- With epi-illuminated microscopy, the light is directed perpendicular to the sample from above.
- Microscopic illuminators or built-in light source function as light sources for Microscope. it captures light from an external source of a low voltage of about 100v.
- A condenser may be defined as a series of lenses for illuminating with transmitted light an object to be studied on the stage of the microscope.
- Additionally, you’ll need a microscope with an Abbe condenser to get the best clarity at high levels of magnification settings.
- Condenser is located under the stage next to the diaphragm of the microscope.
- They have a high magnification of 400X and above.
- Condensers with high magnification power can produce a high quality image.
- For 1000x resolution, a reasonably sophisticated microscope with an Abbe condenser is required. (More sophisticated microscopes include an Abbe condenser with a high magnification of roughly 1000X.)
Types of Condenser:
condenser used two methods of illumination;
- Bright field illumination: There are present Three Types of condenser which used in bright field illumination;
- Abbe condenser: The Abbe condenser utilizes only two lenses. It is not corrected for spherical and chromatic aberration
- Achromatic condenser: The achromatic condenser is corrected for both chromatic and spherical aberration.
- Variable Focus Condensor: The variable focus condenser is a two lenses system in which the upper lens is fixed and the lower element focussable.
B. Darkfield illumination
There are present Three Types of condenser which are used in dark field illumination;
- Abbe Condenser: It may be employed either by inserting a dark field stop below the condenser or by unscrewing the top part of condenser
- Paraboloid Condenser: The paraboloid condenser is designed to be used with high power oil immersion objectives and an intense source of light
- Cardioid Condenser: The cardioid condenser is specially designed to be used for the examination of colloidal solution or suspension.
- Condenser helps to collect and focus the light from the illuminator on to the specimen.
- It is located above the condenser and below the stage.
- Diaphragm also known as iris.
- High quality microscopes contain an Abbe condenser with an iris diaphragm. Combined, they control both the focus and quantity of light applied to the specimen.
- Diaphragm is used to vary the intensity and size of the cone of light that is projected upward into the slide.
12. Condenser focus knob
- It is located below the Condenser.
- It moves the condenser up or down thus controlling the focus of light on the specimen.
13. The rack stop
- It is located over the stage.
- It regulates the distance between the stages. This prevents the objective lens from being too close to the specimen slide, which could cause damage. It prevents the specimen slide’s height from hitting the objective lens.
- It is a type of Condenser with high resolution, approximately 400x or above.
- Abbe condenser is only found in high-quality microscopes.
- These types of condensers can produce a sharp or clear image with high resolution.
This is a list of the most common terms used in microscopy.
- Abbe Condenser: A lens that is made to fit under the stage and usually moves up and down. The size of the light beam coming into the lens system is controlled by an iris that can be moved. By changing the size of this iris and moving the lens closer to or farther from the stage, you can change the size and centre of the cone of light that goes through the specimen. Abbe condensers are useful when the magnification is higher than 400X and the numerical aperture of the condenser lens is the same as or greater than the numerical aperture of the objective lens.
- Achromatic Lens: A lens that helps fix the way light gets messed up when it goes through a prism or another lens. Since different colours of light bend at different angles, an achromatic lens is made of different types of glass with different indices of refraction. So, the colours are better aligned, but not as well as they would be with a plan or semi-plan objective lens. Most microscopes have achromatic lenses, but plan or semi-plan lenses are used for more precise tasks.
- Arm: The part of a microscope that connects the eyepiece tube to the base.
- Articulated Arm: An articulated arm is part of a boom microscope stand. It has one or more joints that allow the microscope head to move in more ways, giving you a wider range of viewing options.
- Base: Usually, a microscope has a head or body and a base. The base is what holds everything up.
- Binocular Microscope: A microscope with a head that has two eyepiece lenses is called a binocular microscope. Binocular is usually used to describe high-power or compound microscopes with two eyepieces that look through a single objective lens. A stereo or low power microscope may also have two eyepieces, but since each eyepiece looks through a different objective lens, the specimen appears in stereo (3-Dimensional). So that we can tell them apart from monocular and trinocular microscopes, we put both kinds of binocular microscopes in the same category.
- Body: The upper part of a microscope, which includes the eyepieces and objectives, is called the body. It is also sometimes called the “head.” Most modern microscopes are modular, which means that you can use the same body with different bases and bases with the same body.
- Boom Stand (Universal Boom Stand): A base for a microscope that has an adjustable arm or “boom” and lets the body be positioned in different ways. Used in commercial applications that involve inspection.
- Calibration: Calibration is the math used to figure out how far something really is when using a reticle.
- Camera adapter: An adapter kit that lets a camera connect to a microscope’s trinocular port (23mm or 30mm port diameter). The camera is attached to a step ring (or T-Mount) and then to an adapter for cameras.
- Clamp Base: A clamp that replaces the traditional base at the bottom of a boom microscope and lets the pole be clamped to the side of a work bench or table.
- C-Mount: This is an adapter for attaching a lens to a camera. It has a standard thread. It fits into a port for three eyes. The mechanical standard is a 1 diameter, 32 TPI (threads per inch), male on the lens and female on the camera. The optical standard is that the image reaches the focal plane 17.5mm past the edge of the lens mounting threads.
- Coarse Focus: This is the knob on the side of the microscope that raises and lowers the objective lens. It works with the fine focus setting.
- Coaxial focus: Coaxial focus is a system for focusing where the knobs for coarse and fine focus are both on the same axis. Most of the time, the larger knob on the outside is the coarse focus, and vice versa. On some coaxial systems, the fine adjustment is calibrated, which makes it possible to record different measurements.
- Comparison Microscope: A microscope that lets you look at two different things at the same time. The microscope has two sets of lenses, but only one set of eyepieces. It is often used in forensic science because of this.
- Compound Microscope: This word was once used to describe a microscope with more than one objective lens. Now, most people think of a compound microscope as a high-power microscope with more than one objective lens with different magnifications that can be switched between. See low power stereo.
- Condenser: A condenser is a lens that focuses light on a sample and makes the resolution better. Compound microscopes are the only ones that have parts in or below the stage.
- Contrast Plate: Only found on stereo microscopes, it has a black side and a white side. Based on your specimen, you can use either side.
- Cover Slip: A thin, square piece of glass or plastic that goes over the specimen on a microscope slide. It makes liquid samples flat and helps focus on a single plane.
- Darkfield Microscopy: Darkfield microscopy is a way to make specimens that haven’t been stained stand out more. It works by lighting up the sample with light that won’t be caught by the objective lens and, therefore, won’t be part of the image. This makes the classic look of a dark background (almost black) with bright objects on it.
- Darkfield Plate: A circular iris that sits on the base of the microscope above the light source and reflects the light horizontally to the specimen to create lateral lighting.
- Digital microscope: A microscope that has a digital camera built in and can send images directly to a computer, TV, or printer.
- DIN: which stands for “Deutsches Institut für Normung” or “German Institute for Standardization,” is an international organisation that sets the “standard” for a wide range of technologies. “DIN standard” microscope objective lenses have an attachment thread with a 20mm diameter and are usually interchangeable between manufacturers.
- Dissecting Microscope: A dissecting microscope is a stereo microscope used in the lab. The terms are often used interchangeably.
- Doublet Lens: A doublet lens is one that has two separate lenses “welded” together. Used to improve colour performance in widefield eyepieces.
- Dual–View: Dual-View is a type of monocular microscope with a second viewing port on the side. Teachers use this phrase a lot. It can also be used for things like photography.
- Electron microscope: A type of microscope that creates an image of the target using electrons instead of light. It can magnify or see details much better than a regular light microscope—up to two million times better. This lets it see smaller objects and details.
- Eyepiece: The eyepiece is the lens closest to your eye. It is also called an ocular. When you multiply the magnification of the eyepiece by the magnification of the objective lens, you get the total magnification of a microscope.
- Eyepiece Tube: The tube that holds the lens of the eyepiece.
- Fine Focus: A knob used with the coarse focus to fine-tune the focus of a specimen.
- Field of View: The size of the circle of light that can be seen through a microscope.
- Focus: Focus is the ability to make an image clear, which is usually done by moving the eyepiece tubes or the stage.
- Gem/Jeweler’s Microscope: Jeweler’s A stereo microscope made for looking at gems and jewellery. It usually has an inclined pole, a powerful zoom, a darkfield plate, and strong, variable lighting.
- Head: This is the upper part of the microscope that has the eyepiece tubes and prisms. It is often called the “body.”
- Illumination System: The light source on a light microscope, which is usually placed under the stage unless the microscope is inverted.
- Immersion Oil: Immersion Oil is a special oil that is used with the 100X objective to focus the light and make the image clearer. On the cover slip, a drop of oil is put, and the objective is moved down until it touches the oil. Immersion oil comes in two main types: Type A and Type B. Type B is thicker.
- Interpupillary Distance: The space between the two eyepieces, which can usually be changed to fit each user.
- Inverted Microscope: A type of microscope where the light source is above the stage and the lenses are below it. Used to look at larger things, usually in containers.
- Iris Diaphragm: The diaphragm is found under the stage of high-power microscopes. It is usually a five-holed disc with different sizes for each hole. It is used to change how much light comes through the stage opening and helps adjust the contrast and resolution of a specimen. It helps especially at higher powers.
- Jeweler’s Clip: A special clip that attaches to the stage and is made to hold precious stones and jewellery so they are easier to see.
- Koehler illumination: Koehler illumination is a way to light up a room. It is named after the person who came up with it, August Koehler. It is also called “double diaphragm illumination” because the light is controlled by both a field diaphragm and an aperture iris diaphragm. If the light path is set up right, the field can be evenly lit, the image can be bright without glare, and the specimen will heat up as little as possible.
- Light Microscopes: Light microscopes are any kind of microscope that uses a light source to make an image of the specimen. This includes almost all compound and stereo microscopes.
- Magnification: A microscope’s main purpose is to make something look bigger. The microscope’s total magnification is found by multiplying the magnification power of the eyepiece lens by the magnification power of the objective lens.
- Mechanical Stage: A flat mechanism that sits on top of the stage and lets the viewer move a specimen small distances. This is hard to do at higher magnifications without a mechanical stage. Most mechanical stages have an X-axis and a Y-axis so that the person watching can see how far the slide has moved.
- Monocular Microscope: A compound microscope with only one eyepiece is called a monocular microscope.
- Nosepiece: The part at the top of a compound microscope that holds the objective lens is called the nosepiece. A rotating nosepiece or turret is another name for it.
- Numerical Aperture: Numerical Aperture (N.A.) is a way to measure the diameter of the opening in relation to the focal length of a lens and, in turn, the ability of a microscope to see details. N.A. is equal to the index of refraction of the medium in which the object is placed multiplied by the sine of the angle made with the axis by the most oblique ray entering the instrument, with the resolving power increasing as the product increases.
- Objective Lens: The lens closest to the object that receives the light rays from the object first and forms the image in the eyepiece’s focal plane.
- Oil Immersion Lens: An objective lens of 100X or more that is made to work with a drop of immersion oil.
- Parcentered: When the objective is changed, the image of the specimen stays in the middle. Most compound microscopes are centred in the middle.
- Parfocal: When using a parfocal microscope, the image of the specimen stays in focus even when you change the objectives. Most compound microscopes are parfocal.
- Phase Contrast: Phase Contrast is a way to improve contrast that Frits Zernike came up with in 1953 and for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physics. The method changes the phase wavelength of the light, which makes the light reflected by the specimen look dark against a light background. It is useful for looking at things like living tissue cells that are clear.
- Plan Lens: The plan lens is the best objective lens. It “flattens” the image of the specimen and makes the image much clearer and sharper.
- Portable Microscope: A microscope that can be used in the field and doesn’t need to be plugged in. Usually has an LED light source that can be charged so that it can be used in the field where there is no 110/220V electricity.
- Pointer: A piece of high-tensile wire that fits in the eyepiece and lets a viewer point to a certain part of a specimen.
- Pole Stand: A pole stand is a stand for a microscope that has a base and a single vertical pole (or post). Most of the time, the body can move up and down and around the pole.
- Rack and Pinion Focusing Mechanism: A metal rack and pinion are used to focus and move mechanical stages in better microscopes.
- Rack Stop: A safety feature that keeps the objective lens from hitting the stage and damaging the specimen or slide by accident.
- Resolution: Resolution is a lens’s ability to pick out small details in the things it is looking at.
- Reticle: A small glass circle with precise measurements etched into it by a laser. This circle is placed in the eyepiece so that real measurements of the specimen can be taken.
- Revolving Nosepiece: A nosepiece with more than one purpose that spins so that the viewer can choose, usually from one of four different purposes.
- Ring Light: An extra light source that can be attached to a microscope and gives off a ring of light to improve the lighting. Ring lights are usually used on boom microscopes. They can be LED, fluorescent, halogen, or fibre optic.
- Semi-Planned Goals: Make an image clearer and sharper than with a chromatic lens by “flattening” the image of the specimen in part.
- Siedentopf Head: A type of head where the distance between the eyes is changed by twisting the eyepieces in a vertical arc, similar to how binoculars work.
- Slide: A flat, rectangular piece of glass that can hold a sample.
- Slip Clutch: A mechanical device on the focusing knob that lets the knob “slip” if the viewer keeps turning it past its range of motion. Keeps the focusing system from getting broken.
- Stage: The platform where slides and other things are put to be looked at.
- Stage Clips: Stage clips are clips that are attached to the stage and hold the slide in place.
- Stand: This is the part of a stereo or low power microscope that connects the body to the base.
- Stereo Microscope: A stereo microscope is a low-power microscope or dissecting microscope with a separate eyepiece and objective lens for each eye. These separate optical channels let the specimen be seen in stereo or three dimensions. Look at the Compound Microscope.
- Sub-Stage: Parts of the microscope below the stage, such as the light system, are called the “sub-stage.”
- T-Mount: T-Mount is a standard adapter that allows 35mm cameras to be attached to microscopes. Often called a step-ring.
- Tension Adjustment: An adjustment made to the focusing mechanism at the factory to make it both easy to focus and tight enough so that the stage doesn’t move while focusing.
- Turret: Turret is a rotating mechanism, like a nosepiece, condenser, etc.
- Widefield Eyepiece: A better eyepiece lens with a larger diameter that lets you see more and makes it easier to use.
Ocular Lens (Eye Piece)
Arm (Carrying Handle)
Illuminator (Light Source)
Dissecting microscope is the best microscope to get a detailed view of the parts inside of a preserved plant cell
Ocular Lens (Eye Piece): Help the viewer to see the magnified specimen.
Diopter Adjustment: Each microscope eyepiece has a diopter adjustment to allow you to make minor corrections to the image, compensating for the difference in vision between the two eyes.
Head: The head portion or body tube of microscope connects the eyepiece to the objective lenses.
Nose Piece: It holds 2 -3 objective lense.
Helps to increase the magnification levels of specimen image.
Arm (Carrying Handle): The arm Supports the head or body tube and connects it to the base of the microscopes.
Mechanical Stage: The test specimen is placed over it for viewing.
Stage Clip: It holds the specimen slides in place.
Aperture: Through Aperture the base (transmitted) light reaches the stage.
Diaphragm: Diaphragm is used to vary the intensity and size of the cone of light that is projected upward into the slide.
Condenser: The condenser helps to collect and focus the light from the illuminator on to the specimen.
Coarse Adjustment: A coarse adjustment knob is used to focus the microscope. It is always used first, and it is used only with the low power objective.
Fine Adjustment: The fine adjustment knob is used to focus the microscope. It is used with the high power objective to bring the specimen into better focus
Illuminator (Light Source): light sources for Microscope.
Stage Controls: Used to move the stage.
Base: The bottom portion of Microscopes on which the arm portion is standing. It holds all the essential components.
Brightness Adjustment: Control the brightness of the Illuminator.
Light Switch: Used to turn on or turn off the light source of microscope.