BOD Incubator: Definition, Principle, Components, Procedure, Application.

BOD Incubator also known as Biological Oxygen Demand incubator. In microbiology laboratories, it is broadly used for cell culture and fungal growth,...

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This article writter by MN Editors on December 06, 2020

Microbiology Notes is an educational niche blog related to microbiology (bacteriology, virology, parasitology, mycology, immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, etc.) and different branches of biology.

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BOD Incubator
BOD Incubator

BOD Incubator also known as Biological Oxygen Demand incubator. In microbiology laboratories, it is broadly used for cell culture and fungal growth, BOD test, fermentation, crop and physiology, and various pharmaceutical tests etc. 

BOD Incubator is additionally recognized as a low-temperature incubator or refrigerated incubator because it produces a temperature limit between 5°C to 60°C or including cooling and heating capacities under one unit.

BOD incubator Definition

  • It is a special type of incubator which is used to generate an insular environment with a constant temperature of 20 degrees centigrade. Many industries use this incubator to create such environments.
  • Some industries use this to check the optimum BOD level in a specific temperature for their products.
  • In laboratories BOD incubator also used to study the germination, insects, and culturing of bacteria.
  • It is also known as biological oxygen demand or biochemical oxygen demand. In BOD incubator oxygen depletion is occurs when microbes are started to consume oxygen.
  • They use oxygen as an electron receptor. When microbes intake organic material it provides them energy to survive and multiply. Similarly, the oxidation method is proceeding without the assistance of the microorganisms. 
  • This whole thing is estimated by the COD method i.e. chemical oxygen demand.

BOD incubator Principle

  • Power is supplied by channels MCB. Temperature is fixed within a digital PID temperature controller, normally at 20°C. 
  • The machine is kept working for 5 days. The cooling system starts only after fixing the temperature.
  • An Axial fan distributes air inside the container. The temperature sensor senses the prevailing temperature and provides data to the PID controller, which furthermore grips the set heat constant till the aspired time.
YouTube video

Application of BOD incubators

  • Many industries use BOD incubators such as pharmaceutical, agriculture, beverages and research laboratories.
  • In manufacturers, it is employed in waste processing plants to define the performance of the treatment system.
  • BOD incubator is employed in liquors to distinguish the nourishment in intended working situations. 
  • It is employed in the farming industry to define the germination of anaerobic bacteria.

Difference between Incubator and BOD Incubator

  • The primary discrepancy between an incubator and BOD incubator is temperature. 
  • A normal incubator has just heating options and is normally performed at 37°C.
  • Whereas a BOD incubator also recognized as a refrigerator incubator or cooling incubator. It holds both cooling and heating options and normally performed at low temperatures like 10°C and 21°C.

Components of BOD Incubator

The BOD Incubator contain these following components;


  • The temperature range of a BOD incubator is 5°C to 60°C.
  • It contains a digital PID controller supported by a PT100 sensor to provide the temperature accurately and uniformly.
  •  Temperature correctness of a BOD incubator is ± 0.5°C and uniformity remains ± 1°C.


  • It has a fluorescent or LED light, which is door operated.
  • It also contains 3 tube lights on the door with a digital cyclic timer. It controls the illumination 24×7 weekly.


  • It contains an over temperature and over current protection and temperature low and high limit buzzer alert for safety.


  • It has a CFC free refrigeration system for cooling temperature under BOD Incubator.


  • It contains ISI mark U-shaped tubular air heaters which help in heating.


  • It contains 2 to 5 removable trays which are made of steel wire mesh cable.
  • These are removable for cleaning purposes and height-adjustable.

Air circulation

  • It contains axial fans or a motorized blower system.
  • These axial fans help in the uniform circulation of air within the incubator.


  • It is a double-walled incubator consist of exterior and interior walls.
  • The exterior wall is consists of thick mild steel and powder coated.
  • The interior wall is consists of stainless steel. 
  • The space within certain two walls is loaded with PUF insulation.


  • It contains double doors such as the Outer door and inner door.
  • The outer door is soild and has a mechanical door lock and key whereas the inner door is consists of glass to view the samples. 

BOD incubator Labeled Diagram

BOD Incubator Labeled Diagram
BOD Incubator Labeled Diagram
  1. Exterior
  2. Inner chamber
  3. Toughened glass window
  4. Air circulation fan
  5. Removable tray
  6. Temperature sensor
  7. Door hinges
  8. Door handle with lock & key
  9. PID temperature controller
  10. Analog ampere meter
  11. Pilot lamp
  12. Safety thermostat
  13. On/Off MCB
  14. Refrigeration system
  15. Power cord
  16. Caster wheels
  17. Solid door
  18. Heater

Operating Procedure of BOD Incubator

  1. Before run a BOD incubator make sure the incubator is connected with the power supply.
  2. After that turn on the main switch on the mainboard then turn on the switch on the cabinet.
  3. After that set the desired temperature on the controller by pressing the set knob and soft key.
  4. Control the temperature every day as by the following procedure.
  5. Record the temperature which is displayed on the controller.
  6. Monitor the temperature displayed on the digital screen. The temperature should not deviate by 2 degrees centigrade.
YouTube video


  • Always disconnect the BOD incubator from the socket when it is not in use.
  • To avoid downtime and maintain the working condition of the incubator periodic servicing is important.
  • Before run a BOD incubator read the instruction manual carefully and don’t overuse it.
  • During cleaning the incubator make sure the incubator is disconnected from the power supply.
  • Clean the BOD incubator regularly to maintain its working performance.
  • Monitor the temperature changes in the BOD incubator on monthly basis. 


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Microbiology Notes is an educational niche blog related to microbiology (bacteriology, virology, parasitology, mycology, immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry, etc.) and different branches of biology.

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