Table of Contents
Zoology is the biological discipline devoted to the study of animals and the animal kingdom. Also referred to as animal biology. Zoology is the study of the connection between the animal kingdom and their environments, including taxonomy, habits, structure, embryology, distribution, evolution, and extinct species.
Zoology is the branch of biology concerned with animal life. It is the scientific study of all species within the animal kingdom.
Aristotle, an ancient Greek philosopher, was the first to broadly categorise living things in the fourth century BC. He began by classifying living things into animals and plants, and then moved on to his subsequent classifications. Subsequently, terms such as biology, botany, and zoology were coined.
Zoology is the study of animals’ physiology, behaviour, and interactions with other species in their environment. It is a massive course that covers the distribution of all animal species on earth, including those that are extinct. In addition to the animal kingdom and ecosystem, zoology investigates new scientific fields.
Later, Aristotle classified animals into two classes: those with and without red blood, including insects and crustaceans. Then, he categorised organisms based on their ability to walk, flow, and swim.
Until the 16th century, during the Age of Enlightenment, scientists continued to adhere to Aristotle’s classification system. Currently, zoology is considerably more complicated, since living things are split into five kingdoms and the animal kingdom is further subdivided into Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and lastly Species.
Charles Darwin combined these achievements in his theory of evolution by natural selection. Charles Robert Darwin presented his theory of organic evolution together with observational evidence in 1859.
Zoology, also known as animal biology, is the biological study of animals. The term zoology is derived from the Greek terms zion, which means “animal,” and logos, which means “the study of.” It includes embryonic development, evolution, behaviour, ecological distribution, and categorization, among other facets of animal science. Because there are so many various techniques to study animals, zoology is subdivided into numerous branches; it is also subdivided based on which species are being examined.
Branches of Zoology
Sub-Branches of Zoology
- Anatomy is the study of the structure and organisation of human, animal, and plant beings. It is the study of the physical components of organisms, such as organs, tissues, cells, and systems, in order to determine how they work and interact with one another.
- Anatomy is essential for numerous reasons. Secondly, it serves as a foundation for the study of other biological disciplines, such as physiology, pathology, and genetics. Without knowledge of the structure and organisation of organisms, it would be challenging to appreciate how they function and how diseases influence them.
- Second, anatomy is vital to the practise of medicine and other healthcare professions. To diagnose and treat illnesses and injuries, physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals must have a thorough understanding of anatomy. A surgeon, for instance, must have a comprehensive understanding of human anatomy in order to conduct surgery safely and effectively.
- Anatomy is crucial for our comprehension of evolution and the variety of life on Earth. By examining the anatomy of several species, it is possible to detect similarities and differences between creatures and reconstruct their evolutionary history.
- Anatomy is a fundamental subject of study that enables us to comprehend the form and function of living things, and it has significant applications in domains such as medicine, healthcare, and evolutionary biology.
- Anthropozology is the interdisciplinary study of human-animal relationships. Examining the interactions between humans and animals in a variety of circumstances, such as domesticated pets, livestock, wildlife, and animals employed for research or entertainment.
- Anthropozology utilises the knowledge and techniques of numerous disciplines, including biology, psychology, sociology, anthropology, and philosophy. It investigates topics such as how humans and animals communicate, how humans use animals for companionship, employment, or food, and how animals influence human health and well-being.
- Anthropozology includes the study of the advantages of animal-assisted therapy, the ethical implications of employing animals in research, the cultural and historical links between people and animals, and the protection of endangered species.
- Anthrozoology is essential because it enables us to comprehend the intricate relationships between humans and animals, as well as the effects of these ties on society and the environment. It also reveals how we might improve the well-being of both humans and animals by better understanding and managing these relationships.
3. Archaeozoology or Zooarchaeology
- Archaeozoology, usually referred to as zooarchaeology, is the study of animal remains discovered in archaeological sites.
- It involves the analysis of animal bones, teeth, and other remains to determine how people interacted with animals in the past.
- This encompasses the study of animal domestication and its usage for food, clothing, transportation, and other purposes. Also, the field investigates the ecology and distribution of animals during various time periods and geographical locations.
- Archaeozoology is essential for comprehending the evolution of human-animal connections and the function of animals within human society.
- Arachnology is the study of spiders and other arachnids, including ticks, mites, and scorpions. Their anatomy, behaviour, ecology, and categorization are examined.
- Arachnologists investigate the environmental adaptations of these species, their reproductive biology, and their interactions with other organisms.
- They also research the possible medical applications of the venom of some species. Arachnology is essential for comprehending the significance of these organisms in ecosystems and for devising techniques to control invasive or hazardous species.
- Bionics is the study and application of biological systems and processes to the construction of artificial systems.
- It involves utilising biological, engineering, and robotics principles to develop robots and materials that mimic living beings. Applications of bionics include prostheses, robotics, and materials science.
- For instance, prosthetic limbs can be created to mirror the movements and functions of natural limbs, and materials can be made to possess similar qualities to those of organic tissues.
- The study of meat and meat products, including its production, processing, and consumption, is known as carnicology.
- Examining the nutritional content of meat, the impact of various production and processing methods, and the social and cultural aspects that influence meat consumption.
- Carnicology is essential for comprehending the role of meat in human meals and for the development of sustainable and moral ways of meat production.
- The study of whales, dolphins, and porpoises is known as cetology. It include investigating their anatomy, behaviour, ecology, and conservation.
- Cetologists investigate the biology, communication, and social relationships of these animals, as well as their significance in marine ecosystems.
- They also explore the effects of human activities, such as fishing, hunting, and pollution, on these species. Cetology is crucial for comprehending and protecting these fascinating and ecologically significant sea mammals.
- The study of cells, including their structure, function, and behaviour, is known as cytology. It entails viewing cells under a microscope and employing a variety of tools to investigate their features, such as cell division, metabolism, and signalling.
- Cytology has applications in medical, genetic, and biotechnology domains. Cytology, for instance, can be used to diagnose and cure diseases, investigate genetic problems, and develop new therapies and treatments.
- Ecology is the study of organisms’ interactions with their environment. Examining the distribution and abundance of various species, the movement of energy and nutrients across ecosystems, and the effects of environmental factors such as climate change, pollution, and habitat destruction.
- Conservation biology, agriculture, and environmental science are domains in which ecology has applications.
- Ecologists can, for instance, examine the effects of land-use practises on biodiversity, establish sustainable agricultural techniques, and monitor the impact of pollutants on ecosystems.
- Embryology is the scientific study of embryonic development, from fertilisation to the production of a mature creature. It is the study of the processes and mechanisms of embryonic development, such as cell division, differentiation, and morphogenesis.
- Embryology is a significant topic of research because it enables us to comprehend how organisms grow and develop and acquire their varied structures and functions. Researchers can obtain insight into the genetic and molecular systems that regulate the formation of organs and tissues by researching embryonic development.
- Embryology has significant applications in sectors such as biotechnology and medicine. For instance, embryonic stem cells can be used to investigate the development of tissues and organs as well as to discover new treatments for diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Understanding the causes and therapies of developmental abnormalities such as Down syndrome and spina bifida is also dependent on embryology.
- Entomology encompasses the study of insects’ biology, behaviour, ecology, and taxonomy. It encompasses a wide range of issues, including the physiology of insect digestion, the social behaviour of ants, and the ecological interactions of insects with other creatures.
- Entomologists investigate insects in both natural and managed habitats, such as agriculture, forestry, and urban areas. To explore the biology and behaviour of insects, they employ a number of equipment and methods, including microscopy, molecular biology, and field observations.
- Agriculture, medicine, and conservation biology are significant domains in which entomology has uses. For instance, entomologists might examine the influence of insects on crop output and devise strategies for controlling pest populations. In addition, they can investigate the function of insects in the transmission of diseases like malaria and create new treatment and prevention measures. Entomologists can research the interactions between insects and other organisms in ecosystems and propose protection methods for endangered bug species and their habitats through conservation biology.
- Ethology is the scientific study of animal behaviour, focusing on natural habitats and social interactions. Ethologists observe animal behaviour and interactions in their natural surroundings. They seek to comprehend the fundamental mechanics and adaptive purposes of animal behaviour, including how animals interact, mate, raise their young, scavenge for food, and protect themselves against predators.
- Ethology utilises numerous disciplines, including biology, psychology, and ecology, to examine the intricate behaviours of animals. Ethologists obtain insights into animal behaviour through a number of study methodologies, including field observations, experiments, and modelling.
- Jane Goodall did ground-breaking studies on chimpanzee behaviour and social organisation. The science of ethology has several applications, including conservation biology, animal welfare, and animal training.
13. Evolution Environments
- Evolutionary environments are the physical and biological conditions that influence the evolution process. These habitats may include climate, geography, topography, food and resource availability, and biotic aspects like as predation, competition, and symbiosis.
- Various habitats can favour distinct traits or qualities in animals, leading to adaptations that aid organisms in surviving and reproducing in their particular environment. In habitats with limited resources, for instance, animals that are better at gaining and utilising those resources will have a selection advantage, leading to the evolution of characteristics like as efficient foraging, robust defences, and specialised feeding structures.
- Understanding how and why species have developed over time and how they continue to adapt to changing conditions requires the study of evolution’s surroundings. It also has consequences for subjects such as conservation biology, since understanding the unique settings that are essential for particular species helps direct efforts to maintain and manage their habitats.
- Genetics is the study of how genetic information is transmitted from generation to generation, expressed in organisms, and subject to change over time. In addition to molecular genetics, evolutionary genetics, population genetics, and genomics, genetics comprises a wide range of subfields.
- The study of DNA, the molecule that provides the genetic instructions for making and maintaining living creatures, is central to genetics. Geneticists investigate the structure and function of DNA, its replication and transmission during cell division, and the transcription and translation of proteins that perform a range of biological tasks.
- The study of genetic variation and its function in evolution and illness is also a part of genetics. Geneticists research how genetic variation occurs, how it is preserved in populations, and how it can contribute to variances in traits and disease risk.
- Numerous practical applications have resulted from advances in genetics research, including the development of genetic testing and gene therapy for genetic disorders, the use of genetic engineering to create genetically modified organisms, and the application of genetic markers in forensic science and population genetics studies.
- Geology encompasses the study of the Earth’s structure, dynamics, history, and resources. Geologists study the physical, chemical, and biological processes that have shaped the Earth over billions of years, as well as how these processes continue to shape the world today.
- Mineralogy, petrology, geomorphology, geophysics, and palaeontology are a few of the many subfields that comprise geology. To study the Earth, geologists employ a number of equipment and methods, including fieldwork, laboratory analysis, and remote sensing.
- The study of plate tectonics, the movement and interaction of the Earth’s lithospheric plates, which has a significant impact on geological processes such as earthquakes, volcanism, and mountain building, is one of the principal topics of inquiry in geology. Moreover, geologists examine the Earth’s rock record, which provides a history of the planet’s former ecosystems and living types.
- Many practical applications of geology include the finding and exploitation of mineral and energy resources, the evaluation of natural hazards such as landslides and earthquakes, and the protection and management of the Earth’s natural systems and resources.
- Herpetology encompasses the study of amphibians and reptiles’ anatomy, physiology, behaviour, ecology, and conservation. Herpetologists study a variety of animals, from tiny tree frogs to enormous crocodiles, and work in a variety of habitats, from tropical rainforests to desert plains.
- Herpetology is an essential topic of study since amphibians and reptiles serve as predators, prey, and competitors for resources in their own habitats. Certain amphibians and reptiles are useful environmental health indicators because they are sensitive to changes in their environments and can be used to assess ecosystem health.
- To investigate the biology and behaviour of amphibians and reptiles, herpetologists employ a number of research techniques, including field observations, experiments, and genetic analysis. They also aim to protect and manage populations by investigating habitat requirements, population dynamics, and responses to challenges such as habitat loss, pollution, and illness.
- Herpetology has numerous practical applications, including the development of new drugs and therapies based on compounds found in amphibian skin, the use of reptiles and amphibians in biomedical research, and the use of herpetofauna as indicators of ecosystem health for conservation and management purposes.
- The scientific study of fishes, including their anatomy, physiology, behaviour, ecology, and conservation, is known as ichthyology. Ichthyologists examine a wide range of fish species, from tiny minnows to enormous sharks, and work in a variety of habitats, from freshwater streams to the depths of the ocean.
- Ichthyology is an essential topic of research since fish serve as predators, prey, and resource competitors in their own environments. Several fish species are also commercially significant as sources of food or for pleasure fishing.
- Ichthyologists investigate the biology and behaviour of fish using a variety of research approaches, including field observations, experiments, and genetic analysis. In addition, they strive to maintain and manage fish populations by investigating their habitat needs, population dynamics, and responses to stressors such as overfishing, habitat loss, and pollution.
- There are numerous practical applications of ichthyology, including the creation of sustainable fishing techniques, the management and conservation of fish populations, and the use of fish as environmental health indicators in aquatic environments. Fish are utilised in the development of new medications and treatments for human ailments.
18. Mammalogy [Also called Mastology]
- The scientific study of mammals, including their anatomy, physiology, behaviour, ecology, and conservation, is known as mammalogy or mastology. Mammalogists investigate a variety of mammal species, ranging from tiny shrews to enormous elephants, and work in a variety of habitats, from tropical rainforests to polar tundra.
- Mammals are a diverse group of animals distinguished by their ability to produce milk to nourish their young and by their unique adaptations to a variety of environments and lifestyles. Mammalogy is an essential topic of study since mammals serve as predators, prey, and competitors for resources within their ecosystems. Certain animals are economically significant as food, fibre, and other product sources.
- To investigate the biology and behaviour of mammals, mammalogists employ a number of research approaches, such as field observations, experiments, and genetic analyses. They also strive to maintain and manage mammal populations by investigating their habitat needs, population dynamics, and responses to stressors including habitat loss, poaching, and illness.
- Mammalogy has several practical uses, including the management and conservation of mammal populations, the creation of sustainable hunting and trapping techniques, and the use of mammal species as environmental health indicators in conservation and management initiatives. Mammals are utilised in the development of new medications and cures for human ailments.
- Malacology is the scientific study of mollusks, a varied group of invertebrates with soft, segmentless bodies that includes snails, clams, octopuses, and other organisms. Malacologists research the biology, ecology, behaviour, evolution, and significance of mollusks to human society.
- Mollusks serve as food sources for predators, decomposers of organic materials, and contributors to nutrient cycling in numerous habitats. Certain species of mollusks are commercially significant as sources of food, jewellery, and other items.
- To investigate the biology and behaviour of mollusks, malacologists employ a number of research techniques, including field observations, experiments, and genetic analysis. In addition, they aim to maintain and manage mollusc populations by investigating their habitat requirements, population dynamics, and responses to stressors such as habitat loss, pollution, and overharvesting.
- Malacology has numerous practical uses, including the management and protection of mollusk populations, the development of sustainable harvesting methods for edible mollusks, and the use of mollusc species as markers of environmental health in conservation and management initiatives. Certain mollusks are employed in the development of new medications and treatments for human ailments.
- Morphology is the scientific study of the shape and structure of plants, animals, and microbes. Morphologists examine the physical aspects of animals, from the smallest cellular structures to the biggest anatomical traits.
- Morphology is an essential topic of research because the form and structure of an organism can reveal important details about its biology, behaviour, and evolution. For instance, the shape and arrangement of leaves can tell a plant’s photosynthetic strategy, whereas the shape and structure of bones might reveal an animal’s movement and feeding habits.
- Morphologists examine the morphology of organisms using a number of research approaches, including microscopic investigation, imaging techniques, and anatomical dissection. In addition, they employ comparative approaches to investigate how the form and structure of organisms vary between species and lineages, and how these differences are related to function and evolution.
- Numerous practical applications of morphology include the identification and classification of organisms for agricultural, medical, and ecological purposes, the development of new materials and technologies based on biological structures, and the design of biomimetic devices that mimic the form and function of biological structures.
- Nematology is the scientific study of nematodes, a group of microscopic, segmentless worms that inhabit a variety of habitats, including soil, freshwater, and marine environments. Nematologists investigate the biology, ecology, behaviour, evolution, and relationships of nematodes.
- Nematodes serve as decomposers of organic materials, parasites of plants and animals, and predators of other tiny organisms in numerous habitats. Certain nematode species are commercially significant as crop pests, while others have potential biotechnological and medical applications.
- Nematologists investigate the biology and behaviour of nematodes using a number of research approaches, including field observations, laboratory studies, and genetic analysis. Through the study of their ecology, life cycles, and interactions with other organisms, they also attempt to create ways for nematode pest control and population management.
- Numerous practical applications of nematology include the development of sustainable agricultural practises that reduce the impact of nematode pests on crops, the identification and management of nematode-borne diseases in humans and animals, and the use of nematodes as model organisms for studying developmental biology and gene regulation.
- Neonatology is the medical specialty concerned with the care of newborn infants, especially those born prematurely or with medical disorders requiring special treatment.
- Neonatologists are physicians who specialise in the diagnosis and treatment of newborns, particularly premature infants, infants with birth abnormalities, and those with respiratory or cardiac issues.
- Neonatology is a relatively recent branch of medicine, having emerged in the 20th century when breakthroughs in medical technology and understanding enhanced the survival rates of premature infants.
- Neonatologists collaborate with physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists, among others, to offer specialised care for babies in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and other specialty units.
- The scientific study of birds, including their biology, behaviour, ecology, and evolution, is known as ornithology.
- Ornithologists investigate a vast array of topics pertaining to birds, including their anatomy and physiology, migration patterns, vocalisations, and mating behaviour.
- Ornithology has numerous practical uses, including the protection and management of bird populations, the control of avian pests, and the development of new technology for researching the behaviour and ecology of birds.
- To study birds and their habits, ornithologists employ a number of research approaches, including field observations, laboratory studies, and genetic analyses.
- Paleontology is the scientific study of fossils and extinct species that existed millions of years ago, such as dinosaurs, plants, and other organisms.
- Paleontologists examine fossils using a range of techniques, including excavation, research of geological layers, and comparison with living animals.
- Paleontology offers significant insights into the history and evolution of life on Earth, including the origins of key groupings of creatures, the formation of various ecosystems, and the effects of major environmental changes on life forms. Paleontologists contribute to the discovery and interpretation of fossils for the public’s delight and education.
- Pathology is the medical speciality that examines tissues and organs to discover the nature and causes of illness in order to diagnose and treat disease.
- Pathologists are physicians who specialise in interpreting laboratory tests and analysing tissue samples to detect disease.
- Pathology has many practical uses in illness diagnosis, treatment, and the development of new medicines and pharmaceuticals. Pathologists investigate tissues and fluids using a number of techniques, including microscopy, molecular analysis, and imaging tools.
- Primatology encompasses the study of primates’ biology, behaviour, ecology, and evolution. Primatologists investigate a vast array of subjects pertaining to primates, including their anatomy and physiology, social organisation, communication, and mating behaviour.
- Many practical applications of primatology include the protection and management of primate populations, the control of zoonotic illnesses, and the development of new technology for researching monkey behaviour and ecology.
- To study primates and their behaviours, primatologists employ a number of research methodologies, including field observations, laboratory studies, and genetic analyses.
- Protozoology is the scientific study of protozoa, a group of single-celled creatures found in a variety of habitats, including soil, freshwater, and marine settings. Protozoologists investigate the biology, ecology, behaviour, evolution, and interactions of protozoa.
- Protozoa serve as decomposers of organic materials, parasites of plants and animals, and contributors to nutrient cycling in numerous ecosystems. Certain protozoan species are economically significant as crop pests, but others may have applications in biotechnology and medicine.
- Taxonomy is the branch of biology concerned with the categorization, naming, and identification of species. Taxonomists classify creatures into taxonomic categories, including species, genus, family, and order, based on a number of traits, including morphology, genetics, and behaviour.
- Taxonomy is an essential technique for comprehending the diversity of life on Earth and arranging data about species.
- It offers a structure for the study of evolution, biogeography, and ecology, as well as the conservation and management of biodiversity. As new information is uncovered and new methodologies are created, taxonomy is in a perpetual state of change.
29. Zoography (Descriptive Zoology)
- Zoography, often known as descriptive zoology, is the subfield of zoology concerned with the classification and description of creatures.
- The objective of zoographers is to establish a thorough understanding of the animal kingdom by studying the physical traits, behaviour, distribution, and diversity of animals.
- Zoography is a crucial technique for identifying and classifying animals, as well as for comprehending the evolutionary links between different groupings.
- It provides a foundation for monitoring and managing species and habitats, which is essential for the conservation and management of animal populations.
- Zoogeography is the study of animal distribution and the physical and biological variables that determine their distribution.
- Zoogeographers examine the patterns of animal distribution throughout various geographic locations, such as continents, islands, and oceans, as well as the historical and ecological reasons that have created these patterns.
- Zoogeography is essential for comprehending the evolution and diversity of animal life on Earth and for conserving and managing animal populations.
- It sheds light on the variables that have influenced the distribution and variety of various animal groups, such as climate change, continental drift, and human activities.
- Zoometry is the area of zoology that measures and quantifies animal structures and body components.
- Using imaging, computer modelling, and physical measurements, zoometrists estimate the size, shape, and proportion of various animal structures such as bones, muscles, and organs.
- Zoometry is essential for comprehending the anatomy and physiology of animals, in addition to functional morphology and biomechanics.
- It helps researchers understand the evolution and adaption of many animal groups by revealing how animals move, feed, and interact with their surroundings.
- Zootomy is the area of zoology that studies animal anatomy, specifically the structure and organisation of various tissues, organs, and systems.
- Using techniques such as dissection, imaging, and microscopy, zootomists investigate the interior and exterior features of animals.
- Zootomy is essential for comprehending animal anatomy and physiology, as well as the study of functional morphology and evolution.
- It reveals how various animal groupings have adapted to their environment, how they interact with other organisms, and how they have evolved over time.
- While it provides a foundation for comprehending the normal form and function of animal tissues and organs, zootomy is also essential for veterinary medicine and the study of animal disorders.
|Branches of Zoology
|Study of internal structure of animals
|Study of past, present and future interactions between animals and human beings
|Archaeozoology or Zooarchaeology
|Study of dead animals
|Branch of biology that deals with the study of spiders, scorpionsor other arachnids
|Study of mechanical systems like living organisms and parts of living organisms
|Study of Crustaceans
|Study of marine mammals [Dolphins, Whales, Porpoises, etc]
|Study of cell structure and its functions
|Relationship between the organisms and their surrounding environments
|Study of egg fertilisation, embryos and fetuses
|Study of insects
|Study of the behaviour of animals to interpret their effects on evolution
|Study of origin of animals and their adaptation
|Study of heredity and variations
|Study of earth and life as shown by fossils in rocks
|Study of reptiles and amphibians
|Study of anatomy of cells and tissues of animals
|Study of Fishes
|Mammalogy [Also called Mastology]
|Study of Mammals
|Study of animal forms with shells [Snails, Octopus, Slugs, etc]
|Study of form and specific structures of animal organisms
|Division of zoology that studies roundworms
|Study of newborn animals till the age of two months
|This branch of zoology concerns the study of birds.
|Study of fossils and extinct animals
|Study of bodily fluids in laboratory like blood, urine, tissues, etc to diagnose diseases
|Study of primates [apes, gorillas, monkeys, prosimians, etc]
|Study of protozoa or the unicellular organisms
|This field studies, groups and formulates nomenclaturerules of animals on the basis of common characteristics.
|Zoography (Descriptive Zoology)
|Study of animals and their respective habitats
|Study of geographical distribution of animal species
|Study of measurement including size and length of animal parts
|Study of animal anatomy
What is zoology?
Zoology is the scientific study of animals, including their behavior, physiology, genetics, evolution, and ecology.
What are the branches of zoology?
Some of the main branches of zoology include anatomy, physiology, genetics, evolution, ecology, ethology, and taxonomy.
What is animal behavior?
Animal behavior is the study of how animals interact with their environment, including their social interactions, communication, mating behavior, and responses to stimuli.
What is animal physiology?
Animal physiology is the study of how animals function, including their biochemical and physiological processes, organ systems, and adaptations to their environment.
What is animal genetics?
Animal genetics is the study of how genes are passed down from one generation to another in animals, and how genetic variation influences traits and behavior.
What is animal evolution?
Animal evolution is the study of how species have changed and diversified over time, including the origin of new species, the extinction of old ones, and the patterns of biodiversity across different environments.
What is animal ecology?
Animal ecology is the study of how animals interact with each other and with their environment, including their relationships with other species, food chains and food webs, and the role of animals in ecosystem processes.
What is ethology?
Ethology is the scientific study of animal behavior, including their natural instincts, learned behaviors, social organization, and communication.
What is animal taxonomy?
Animal taxonomy is the study of the classification and naming of animals, including their evolutionary relationships, physical characteristics, and distribution.
What is animal morphology?
Animal morphology is the study of the form and structure of animals, including their internal and external anatomy, and the relationships between different body parts and systems.