Contribution of Microbiologist: Ignaz Semmelweis, Hans Christian Gram, Charles Lavaran, Fanny Hesse, Marjory Stephenson, Kiyoshi Shiga, Emil von Behring.

1. Ignaz Semmelweis

  • Ignaz Semmelweis was born on 1 July 1818 in Buda, Kingdom of Hungary, which is now part of Budapest, Hungary.
  • The full name of  Ignaz Semmelweis is Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis.
  • He was a Hungarian physician and scientist.
  • He died at the age of 47 on August 13, 1865.


  • In medical history, he first demonstrated that puerperal fever (also known as “childbed fever”) was contagious.
  • He also demonstrated that washing hands with a chlorine solution can reduce the mortality of women giving birth in the hospital setting.

2. Hans Christian Gram

  • The full name of Hans Christian Gram was Hans Christian Joachim Gram.
  • He was born on 13 September 1853 Copenhagen, Denmark
  • He was a Danish bacteriologist.
  • He died at the age of 85 on 14 November 1938


  • Hans Christian Gram invented the Gram staining technique, which is still an important staining technique in microbiology to distinguish bacterial cells. This staining technique helps to differentiate between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
  • In this gram staining technique, the bacterial cell is first treated with crystal violet dye, then with an iodine solution and safranine. After that, the cells are observed under a microscope.
  • Hans Christian Gram was the first to recognize that macrocytes were characteristic of pernicious anemia.

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3. Charles Lavaran

  • The full name of Charles Lavaran is Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran.
  • He was born on 18 June 1845 in Paris, France.
  • He was a French physician.
  • For his discovery of for his discoveries of parasitic protozoans he received Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1907.
  • He died at the age of 76 on 18 May 1922.


  • Charles Lavaran discovered that malaria is caused by protozoan, by observing the blood sample of a malaria patient who had just died of malaria.
  • He named this protozoan as Oscillaria malariae, later it renamed as renamed Plasmodium.

4. Fanny Hesse

  • Her original name is Angelina Fanny Elishemius.
  • She was born in 1850 in New York City.
  • She died on December 1, 1934.


  • Fanny Hesse and her husband  Walther Hesse developed agar medium to culture microorganisms.

5. Marjory Stephenson

  • Marjory Stephenson was born on 24 January 1885 in Burwell, Cambridgeshire, England.
  • She was a British biochemist.
  • She died at the age of 63 on 12 December 1948.


  • In 1930, she wrote Bacterial Metabolism, which was the standard textbook for generations of microbiologists.
  • In 1945, she was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society.

6. Kiyoshi Shiga

  • Kiyoshi Shiga was born on February 7, 1871, in Sendai, Miyagi, Japan
  • He was a Japanese physician and bacteriologist.
  • He died at the age of 85 on January 25, 1957.


  • In 1897, he discovered the bacteria Shigella dysenteriae which was the causative agent of dysentery disease.
  • He was the president of Keijō Imperial University in Keijo (Seoul).
  • He also was a senior medical advisor to the Japanese Governor-General of Korea.

7. Emil von Behring

  • The original name of Emil von Behring was Emil Adolf von Behring.
  • He was born on 15 March 1854 in Hansdorf, Kreis Rosenberg Prussia.
  • He was a German physiologist.
  • He died at the age of 63 on 31 March 1917.


  • Emil von Behring discovered diphtheria antitoxin.
  • He received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery. 
  • He is also known as a “saviour of children,” because this disease is responsible for child death.



Contribution of Microbiologist: Ignaz Semmelweis, Hans Christian Gram, Charles Lavaran, Fanny Hesse, Marjory Stephenson, Kiyoshi Shiga, Emil von Behring.

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