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Protein Synthesis (Translation)- Definition, Steps, Sites, Machinery

protein synthesis diagram labeled

What is Protein Synthesis? Protein synthesis is a fundamental biological process that occurs within cells, responsible for the formation of proteins through the assembly of amino acid chains, termed polypeptides. This process is pivotal to the central dogma of genetics and is instrumental in maintaining cellular function and structure. The process of protein synthesis can … Read more

Fluorescence Microscopy – Definition, Principle, Parts, Uses, Examples

Fluorescence Microscope

The concept of using fluorescence to study biological materials dates back to the late 19th century, but the first practical fluorescence microscope was not developed until the 1930s. In 1938, Robert Goldstein and Richard Manly, researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, published a paper describing the use of fluorescence to study cells and tissues … Read more

Karyotype and Idiogram – Definition, Procedure, Steps, Applications

Karyotype and Idiogram - Definition, Procedure, Steps, Applications

What is Karyotyping? Definition of Karyotyping Karyotyping is a laboratory technique used to visualize and analyze the number, size, and shape of chromosomes in an individual’s cells, aiding in the detection of genetic abnormalities and chromosomal disorders. What is Idiogram? An idiogram is a diagrammatic representation of a karyotype, which showcases all the morphological features … Read more

Salmonella – Morphology, Antigenic structure, Cultural and Biochemical Characteristics

Salmonella - Morphology, Antigenic structure, Cultural and Biochemical Characteristics

Genus Salmonella Salmonella, a genus of bacteria, belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. These are rod-shaped, gram-negative bacilli known for their significant role in various diseases affecting both humans and animals. Therefore, understanding the characteristics and functions of Salmonella is crucial in the field of microbiology and medicine. The genus Salmonella is characterized by its enterobacterial properties. … Read more

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) – Structure, Properties, Functions, Deficiency

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) - Structure, Properties, Functions, Deficiency

What is Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)? Definition of Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Vitamin B1, also known as thiamine, is a water-soluble vitamin essential for the metabolism of glucose and amino acids in the body. It plays a critical role in energy production and is vital for the proper function of the nervous system. Thiamine is naturally found … Read more

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) – Structure, Properties, Functions, Deficiency

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) - Structure, Properties, Functions, Deficiency

What is Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)? Definition of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble essential nutrient found in various foods, primarily in citrus fruits. It plays a crucial role in tissue repair, collagen synthesis, and acts as an antioxidant, protecting cells from damage. Humans must obtain it … Read more

cDNA Cloning – Definition, Principle, Steps, Applications

Complementary DNA or cDNA cloning - Principle, Steps 

What is cDNA cloning? Definition of Complementary DNA or cDNA Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a form of DNA synthesized from a messenger RNA (mRNA) template through the action of the enzyme reverse transcriptase. It represents the coding sequence of genes and is commonly used in gene cloning and expression studies. cDNA Cloning Definition cDNA cloning … Read more

Vitamin K – Structure, Properties, Biological roles and Deficiency

Vitamin K - Structure, Properties, Biological roles and Deficiency

What is Vitamin K? Definition of Vitamin K Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin essential for the synthesis of proteins involved in blood coagulation and bone health. It is naturally found in green leafy vegetables, certain animal foods, and is also produced by gut bacteria. Properties of vitamin K Different forms of vitamin K Vitamin … Read more

Vitamin E – Structure, Functions, Synthesis, Deficiency

Vitamin E - Structure, Functions, Synthesis, Deficiency

What is Vitamin E? Definition of Vitamin E Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant essential for human health that protects cell membranes from damage by reactive oxygen species and plays a role in immune function, skin health, and vision. It encompasses a group of eight compounds, including four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Chemical structures of … Read more

Vitamin D – Structure, Functions, Synthesis, Mechanism, Deficiency

Vitamin D - Structure, Functions, Synthesis, Mechanism, Deficiency

What is Vitamin D? Definition of Vitamin D Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid that plays a crucial role in calcium absorption in the gut, promoting bone health and regulating various other biological functions. It can be naturally obtained from sunlight exposure, certain foods, and supplements. Once ingested or synthesized in the skin, it undergoes … Read more

Vitamin A – Structure, Functions, Properties, Source and deficiency

Vitamin A - Structure, Functions, Properties, Source and deficiency

The retinoids, a group of molecules related to the dietary retinol  (vitamin A) , are essential for vision and reproduction, growth and the maintenance of epithelial tissue. They also play an essential part in the immune system. Retinoic acid, which is derived by oxidation of retinol plays a major role in the action of the … Read more

Vitamins – Classification, Source, Importance, Example

Vitamins - Classification, Source, Importance, Example

What are Vitamins? Definition of Vitamins Vitamins are organic molecules essential in small amounts for an organism’s proper metabolic function, which are typically obtained through the diet as they cannot be synthesized by the organism in sufficient quantities. History and nomenclature of Vitamins The history and nomenclature of vitamins have their roots in the early … Read more

What is Lock and Key Model? – Mechanism, Advantages, Limitations

Lock and Key Model Mechanism

What is Lock and Key Model? The Lock and Key Model Concept The “Lock and Key Model” is a fundamental concept in enzymology, introduced by Emil Fischer in 1899. This model provides an analogy to explain the specificity exhibited by enzymes during their interactions with substrates. In this analogy, the enzyme is likened to a … Read more

What is Induced Fit Model? – Mechanism, Advantages, Limitations

Mechanism of Induced fit model

What is Induced Fit Model? Evidences Supporting Induced Fit Model The Induced Fit Model has garnered significant attention in the realm of biochemistry, and various pieces of evidence support its validity. This model posits that proteins, including enzymes, are not static or rigid structures. Instead, they exhibit dynamic properties, allowing them to adapt and change … Read more

The Michaelis–Menten Model and its Plot, Equation, Importance

The Michaelis–Menten Model and its Plot, Equation, Importance

What is Michaelis–Menten model? The Michaelis–Menten model is a fundamental concept in biochemistry, specifically in the realm of enzyme kinetics. Enzymes, which are proteins, play a pivotal role as catalysts in biochemical reactions. Their primary function is to reduce the Gibbs free energy of activation, ΔG, thereby facilitating the reaction to reach its transition state … Read more

Enzyme Inhibition – Definition, Types, Mechanism, Examples

Enzyme Inhibition - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Examples

What is Enzyme Inhibition? Types of Enzyme Inhibition There are present three types of Enzyme Inhibition such as; 1. Reversible Inhibition Reversible inhibition refers to the temporary cessation of enzyme activity due to the binding of a reversible inhibitor. This binding is not permanent, and the enzyme can regain its activity once the inhibitor is … Read more

Enzymes – Structure, Types, Mode of Action, Functions, Applications, Examples

Enzymes - Structure, Types, Mode of Action, Functions, Applications, Examples

What are Enzymes? Definition of Enzymes Enzymes are protein molecules that act as biological catalysts, accelerating chemical reactions within living organisms without being consumed in the process. Characteristics Features of Enzymes Enzymes are biological molecules with distinct characteristics and features that enable them to play crucial roles in various biochemical processes. Here are the key … Read more

Glycogen Metabolism in Human Body

Glycogen Metabolism in Human Body

What is Glycogen? Structure And Function Of Glycogen The primary stores of glycogen within the human body are primarily located in skeletal muscle and the liver, although various other cells also maintain smaller glycogen reserves for their specific metabolic needs. The role of glycogen varies depending on its location, and it plays crucial functions in … Read more

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