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10 Best Books for Biomathematics and Biostatistics
10 Best Books for Instrumentation and Biotechniques
11 Best books for Advances in Microbiology (Practical)
11 Best Books for Inheritance Biology
12 Best Books for Agriculture and Soil Microbiology
12 Best books for Introduction and Scope of Microbiology
12 Best Books for Plant Pathology
12 Best Books on Bacteriology and Virology
15 Best Books for Bioinformatics
15 Best Books for Microbial Biotechnology
15 Best Books For Microbiology Practical
18 Best books for Immunology
18 Best Books for Medical Microbiology
18 Best Books for Recombinant DNA Technology
Best books for CSIR NET Life Science
Best Books for Industrial and Food Microbiology
Best Books For Microbial Metabolism
Top and Best Books for Microbiology
11 Types of Algae With their example.
12 Difference Between Darkfield and bright Field Microscope
12 Top Websites to Download Research Papers for Free
13 Difference Between Binary Fission and Budding
13 Difference Between Heterozygous and Homozygous
14 Difference Between Brightfield and Phase-contrast Microscopy
14 Differences between Primary and Secondary Immune Response
16 Difference Between Brightfield and Fluorescence Microscope.
17 Best Microscope for Students
19 Differences Between Transudates and Exudates
20 Difference Between Bacteria and Fungi
20 Difference Between Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscope
20 Differences between Pili and Flagella
23 Difference Between Batch and Continuous Culture
28 Difference Between Spermatogenesis and Spermiogenesis in human cells.
30 Comparison between Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria
4-Methylumbelliferyl-β-D-Glucuronide (MUG) Test Principle, Procedure, Results
41 Best Biology Movies and Documentary for Students
5-Fluorocytosine (5-FC) Solution Preparation
5′ Capping and Polyadenylation – Definition, Mechanism
65 Best Biology Movies and documentary on Netflix
8 Difference Between antiseptic and Antibiotic
Abiotic Factors – Definition, Types, Examples
Acetamide utilization Test Principle, Procedure, result
Acetate Utilization Test Principle, Procedure, Results
Acetic Acid Production
Acridine Orange Staining
Active Immunity – Definition, Types, Examples
Adaptive (Acquired) Immunity
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Structure, Synthesis, Functions
Afferent vs Efferent Neuron – Differences between Afferent and Efferent Neuron
Affinity chromatography Principle, Types, Steps, Applications
Agarose Gel Electrophoresis Definition, Principle, Procedure, Applications
Agglutination Reaction Definition, Types, Applications
Agglutination test definition, Types, Uses, Advantages, Disadvantages
Air microbiology and Dispersal of Microbes 
Albert Stain Principle, Procedure, Result
Algae: Algae Reproduction
Algal Culturing Techniques by Robert A. Andersen
Alkaline Peptone Water Preparation, Composition, Principle, Application.
Alkaline Phosphatase Test of Milk- Determination of Phosphatase Activity of Milk
Alternative Pathway of Complement System
Amebiasis by by Entamoeba histolytica
Amensalism – Definition, Types, Examples
Ames Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Amies Transport Medium Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Amino Acids Physical Properties, Structure, Classification, Functions
Amoeba Cell Labeled Structure, Characteristics, Movement, Nutrition, Reproduction, Disease, Habitat.
Amoeba Staining, Fixing, Techniques
An Overview of Bacillus cereus
Anaerobic Blood Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Anaerobic Culture Media Examples, Definition
Analytical Balance – Diagram, Principle, Parts, Types, Uses
Ananthanarayan and Paniker’s Textbook of Microbiology (pdf)
Anatomical and Physiological Barriers of Immune System
Anesthetic (MS222) Solution Preparation
Animal Cell Culture Types, Application, Advantages and disadvantages.
Animal Cell Diagram, Structure, Types, Functions
Animal Models for Autoimmune Diseases
Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2011
Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2012 (Part 1)
Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2012 (Part 2)
Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2012 (Part 3)
Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2013
Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2014 (Part 1)
Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2014 (Part 2)
Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2014 (Part 3)
Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2015
Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2016
Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2017
Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2018
Antibiotic Resistance: Definition, Mechanism, Example.
Antibiotics definition, Characteristics, Classification, Administration
Antibody – Structure, Types, Functions and Properties
Antifungal Drug – Mode of Action
Antigen – Definition, Types, Structure, Properties
Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs)
Antigen Processing and Presentation – Cytosolic Pathway and Endocytic Pathway 
Antigen-Antibody Interaction – Definition, Types, Examples, Properties
Antimicrobial Agent and Chemotherapy
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST)
Antiviral Chemotherapy
Antiviral Drug – Mode of Action
API (Analytical Profile Index) 20E Test Result, Principle, Procedure
Aquatic Ecosystem – Definition, Types. Examples
Arabinose Operon – Definition, Structure, Mechanism 
Archaebacteria Definition, Types, Characteristics, Structure, Examples
Arneth Count for Neutrophils – Principle, Procedure.
Asexual Reproduction in bacteria – Definition, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages
Asexual Reproduction in Plants – Definition, Methods
Ashdown’s Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Aspergillosis – Causative Agent, Symptoms, Types, Treatment
Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) – Definition, Principle, Application
Autoclave Bag – Application, Types, Applications, Advantages
Autoclave Definition, Working Principle, Components, Operating procedure.
Autoimmunity – Definition, Types, Tolerance, Pathogenesis, Mechanisms
B cell or B lymphocytes – Definition, Function, Types
Bacitracin Susceptibility Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Bacterial Capsule: Definition, Functions, Composition, Types, Demonstration, and examples.
Bacterial cell wall structure and Composition.
Bacterial Culture Media Classification, Ingredients, Functions and Preparation.
Bacterial Culture Technique
Bacterial Flagella Staining by Leifson Flagella Stain Method
Bacterial Flagella: Definition, Structure, Types, Functions, Rotation, Examples.
Bacterial Food Poisoning: Symptoms, Prevention, Causes & Treatment.
Bacterial Growth and Different Environmental Factors Affect Bacterial Growth
Bacterial Growth Curve and Different Phases
Bacterial Smear Preparation
Bacterial toxin: Definition, Types, Example.
Bacterial Transduction: Generalized and Specialized Transduction
Baird Parker Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Baltimore classification System of Viruses
Basidiomycetes Life cycle, Characteristics, Significance, Mycelium
Basophil – Definition, Structure, Functions
Bath Solution (Ca2+/Mg2+ Free) Preparation
BCYE Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
BD Chaurasia’s Human Anatomy, Volume 2 – Lower Limb, Abdoman and Pelvis, 6th Edition
Beer Production
Benedict’s Test Principle, Reagent Preparation, Procedure, Result, Limitation
Best and Top Books for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
Best and Top Books for Microbial Genetics and Molecular Biology
Best Book for BHU PET Applied Microbiology
Best Books for Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Best Books for Microbiology B.Sc 2nd Semester and Biochemistry
Best Books for Soil and Environmental Microbiology
Best Microbiology Books For B.Sc 1st Year Students and Bacteriology
Beta (β) Lactamase Test Principle, Procedure, Results
BHU PET Applied microbiology Question Papers of Previous Years.
BHU PET Applied Microbiology Syllabus and Books
Bial test for pentoses Principle, Objective, Procedure, Result
Bile Esculin Test Principle, Procedure, Result, and application.
Bile Solubility Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Binary fission Definition, Types, Steps, Examples
Binomial Nomenclature Definition, Rules, Examples, Advantages, Disadvantages
Bioaccumulation – Definition, Mechanisms, Applications
Bioaerosol – Definition, Types, Collection, Transmission
Biochemical Test of Bacillus anthracis
Biochemical Test of Bacillus cereus
Biochemical Test of Hafnia alvei
Biochemical Test of Providencia stuartii
Biochemical Test of Salmonella Typhi
Biochemistry by Satyanarayana U (pdf)
Biography of Alexander Fleming
Biography of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek – Father of Microbiology
Biography of Edward Jenner – British doctor and scientist
Biography of Lazzaro Spallanzani – Italian physiologist
Biography of Louis Pasteur – French Biologist and Chemist
Biography of Robert Hooke
Biography of Robert Koch – Founder of Modern Bacteriology
Biological Consequences of Complement Activation
Biological Magnification -Definition, Causes, Effects
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) Definition, Importance, Measurement
Bioprocess Engineering Definition, Types, Uses
Bioreactor Types, Design, Parts, Applications, Limitations
Bioremediation – Definition, Types, Application
Biosafety Cabinet: Definition, Classification (Class I, II, III), Working Mechanism, Application, Features.
Biosafety Guidelines: Biosafety guidelines and regulations
Biosafety levels With their Primary and Secondary Barriers.
Biotic Factors – Definition, Types, Examples
Bird Seed Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation
Bismuth Sulphite Agar (BSA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Biuret Test For Protein Principle, Procedure, Result, Application.
Blood Agar Definition, Preparation, Composition, Application, and limitation.
Blood Grouping Principle and Procedure
Blotting Definition, Types, Application
BOD Incubator: Definition, Principle, Components, Procedure, Application.
BOD Test – Biological Oxygen Demand Test
Body Lines of Defense – Types, Examples
Botulism Food Poisoning
Bradford Stock Solution Preparation
Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) Agar- Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Branches of Microbiology
Brief History And Developments In Industrial Microbiology
Bright Field Microscope: Definition, Parts, Working Principle, Application.
Brilliant Green Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Brucella Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Bryophytes definition, classification, life cycle, characteristics, importance
BSc Nursing Syllabus of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Year
Budding Definition, Process, Advantages, Disadvantages
Bunsen Burner – Definition, Principle, Parts, Functions
Burkholderia Cepacia Agar Base Preparation, Composition, Principle
Butyrate Disk Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Calcium Chloride Stock Solution Preparation
Calcutta University MSc Microbiology Old Question Papers Download – Cu Old Question paper
CAMP Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Campylobacter Blood Agar (CVA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Cancer Immunotherapy 
Candidiasis – Types, Causative Agent, Treatment, Prevention, Symptoms
Capsule Staining Procedure, Principle, Result
Carbenicillin Solution Preparation
Carbohydrate Fermentation Test – Sugar Fermentation Test
Carbohydrates Definition, Examples, Structure, Types, and Functions
Carbon cycle – Definition, Steps, Importance, Examples
Career In Microbiology and Its Importance
Careers of Microbiologist: Scope, Salary, Jobs, Courses, Eligibility.
Carl Woese’s Classification – Three Domain Classification
Cary Blair Transport Medium Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Cas9 Protein – Structure, Types, Function
Casein Hydrolysis Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Catalase Test Principle, Procedure, Result and Application.
cDNA cloning – Definition, Principle, Steps 
cDNA library – Definition, Principle, Construction, Uses
cDNA Synthesis – Principle, Protocol 
Cell Coat – Definition, Functions, Structure
Cell Cycle – Definition, Phases, Regulation
Cell Disruption Definition, Methods, Application
Cell Mediated Immune Response 
Cell membrane (Plasma Membrane) structures and functions
Cell Membrane Staining Procedure, Principle, Result
Cell Organelles Structure and their Functions
Cell Signaling – Definition, Types, Functions
Cell Structure and Functions – Cell Organelles
Cell Wall Staining by Dayr’s Method
Cell Wall Structure of Archaebacteria 
Cells of Immune System – Types and Examples
Cellular Structure of Algae with diagram
Central Dogma Replication, Transcription, Translation
Centrifugation of blood – Blood Separation
Centrioles and Basal Bodies – Definition, Structure, Functions
Cetrimide Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Cetrimide Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Results
CGPA to Percentage Calculation, What is CGPA?
Channel Protein – Definition, Structure, Function, Example
Characteristic of Genetic Code
Characters of Algae | General Characters of Algae
Charcoal Selective Medium Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Chemical Method of Sterilization – Types, Mode of Action, Application, Examples.
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) – Definition, Measurement, Uses
Chemosynthetic Bacteria Examples, Definition, Pathways, and Processes
Chloroplasts Definition, Characteristics, Structure, Location, Functions, and Diagram
Chloroquine solution Preparation and Uses
Chocolate Agar Media Principle, Composition, Preparation, Result
CHROMagar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Chromatography Principle, Types, Applications
Chromosome Abnormalities Types, Mechanism, Detection
Chromosome Definition, Function, Structure, Types
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) 
Chytridiomycota Overview
Cilia and Flagella Definition, Structure, Function
Circulatory System of Frog
Citric Acid Production
Classical Pathway of Complement Activation
Classification of Bacteria
Classification of Chromatography
Classification of Culture Media
Classification of Fungi: Gymnomycota, Mastigomycota, Amastigomycota.
CLED Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Climax Community – Definition, Characteristics, Theories
Clostridium botulinum – Overview
Clostridium perfringens – Overview
Clostridium perfringens Food Poisoning
Clostridium tetani – Overview
Coagulase Test Principle, Procedure, Application, Result.
COD Test – Test for Chemical Oxygen Demand In Wastewater
Cold-blooded vs Warm-blooded animals
Coliform Bacteria – Definition, Classification, Examples
Coliforms Presence/Absence (PA) Test
Collagen Hybridizing Peptide Staining
Colony Counter – Definition, Types, Parts, Principle
Colony Morphology of Bacteria and Examples
Column Chromatography Procedure, Instruments, Application, Advantages
Commensalism – Definition, Types, Example
Common Fungal Culture Media and Their Uses
Common Glassware used in A Microbiology Laboratory
Comparison Between Acid Fast and Non Acid Fast Bacteria
Comparison Between Gram Stain and Acid Fast
Comparison Between Kinyoun Stain vs Ziehl neelsen stain
Competition Interaction – Definition and Types with Examples
Complement System Definition, Activation, Effects, Regulation
Composting – Methods, Types, Factors, Importance
Compound Microscope Parts, Diagram Definition, Application, Working Principle
Confocal Microscope Principle, Uses, Parts, Advantages, and Disadvantages.
Conical Flask (Erlenmeyer flask) –  Diagram, Definition, Types, Uses
Consumers – Definition, Types, Examples
Contamination of Foods
Contamination of Foods
Contamination, Preservation, and Spoilage of Cereals and Cereal Products
Contamination, Preservation, and Spoilage of Eggs 
Continuous Culture Definition, Advantage, Application, Systems
Contribution of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Contribution of Louis Pasteur in Microbiology.
Contribution of Microbiologist: Ignaz Semmelweis, Hans Christian Gram, Charles Lavaran, Fanny Hesse, Marjory Stephenson, Kiyoshi Shiga, Emil von Behring.
Contribution of Microbiologist: Selman Waksman, Julius Wagner-Jauregg, Charles Nicolle, Gerhard Domagk, Howard Florey, Ernst Chain, Max Theiler.
Contribution of Microbiologists: Joseph Lister, Alexander Fleming, Edward Jenner, Lazzaro Spallanzani, Martinus Beijerinck.
Contribution of Paul Ehrlich and John Snow In Microbiology
Contribution of Robert Koch and Koch’s Postulates
Counter Current Immunoelectrophoresis Principle, Procedure, Result.
COVID-19: Herd immunity threshold could be lower, study finds
Cresol Red Solution Preparation and Uses
CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Editing – Definition, Mechanism, Application
Cross Match Principle, Procedure, Result.
CSIR NET 2008 Life Science Answer Key
CSIR NET 2009 Life Science Answer Key
CSIR NET 2010 Life Science Answer Key
CSIR NET 2011 Life Science Answer Key with Question Paper.
CSIR NET 2012 Life Science Answer Key with Question Paper.
CSIR NET 2013 Life Science Answer Key with Question Paper.
CSIR NET 2014 Life Science Answer Key with Question Paper.
CSIR NET Life Science Answer Key of 2015
CSIR NET Life Science Answer Key of 2016
CSIR NET Life Science Answer Key of 2017
CSIR NET Life Science Answer Key of 2018
CSIR NET Life Science Answer Key of 2019
CSIR NET Life Science Question Papers With Answer Key from 208 to 2019.
CSIR NET Life Science Syllabus
Cultivation of Anaerobic Bacteria
Cultivation of bacteria
Culture Media Examples, Components and Primary Purpose
Culture medium Definition, Preparation, Classification
Cultures Production for Food Fermentations
Cyclic AMP pathway (Cyclic adenosine monophosphate)
Cystine Glucose Blood Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Cystine Tryptic Agar Composition, Preparation, Principle, Uses
Cytoplasm Functions, Structure, Definition, and Diagram
Cytoplasmic Matrix – Definition, Structure, Properties
Cytoskeleton – Definition, Structure, Functions 
Cytotoxic T cells
Czapek’s Agar (CZA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Darkfield Microscope: Definition, Principle, Application.
Decarboxylase Broth Protocol
Decarboxylase Test Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses
Decomposers – Definition, Mechanisms, Types, Example
Degradation of Hydrocarbons (oil spills)
Degradation of Pesticides – Types, Mechanisms
Dendritic cell – Definition, Location, Structure, Types, Functions
Denitrification – Definition, Process, Factors
Density Gradient Centrifugation Principle, Protocol, Uses
Deoxycholate Citrate Agar (DCA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Deoxyribonuclease (DNase) Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Desert Ecosystem – Definition, Types, Importance
Detect the presence of specific antibody and quantitate the amount of antibody in patient’s serum
Dexamethasone: Finally good news for COVID-19 Patients
Dexamethasone: Mechanism, Application, Side effects.
Diagnostic Techniques of Viruses – Molecular and Immunological Techniques
Diauxic growth Curve, Definition, Occurrence.
Difference Between Active Transport and Passive Transport – Active vs Passive Transport
Difference between Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration – Aerobic vs Anaerobic Respiration
Difference Between Analytical Balance and Triple Beam Balance
Difference between Antigen and Antibody
Difference Between Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
Difference between Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
Difference between Biomagnification and Bioaccumulation
Difference Between Biotic and Abiotic Factors – Biotic vs Abiotic Factors
Difference Between Bone and Cartilage – Bone vs Cartilage
Difference Between Breathing and Respiration – Breathing vs Respiration
Difference Between Cation and Anion – Cation vs Anion
Difference Between cDNA and Genomic DNA – cDNA vs genomic DNA
Difference between celsius and fahrenheit – Celsius Vs Fahrenheit Scale
Difference between Chromosome and Chromatid – Chromosome vs Chromatid
Difference between cilia and flagella
Difference Between Classical, Alternative and Lectin Pathway
Difference Between Communicable and non-communicable diseases
Difference Between Compound Microscope and Simple Microscope.
Difference Between Diploid and Haploid – Diploid vs Haploid
Difference between endocytosis and exocytosis (endocytosis vs exocytosis)
Difference between enzymes and hormones – enzymes vs hormones
Difference between Epithelial tissue and Connective tissue – Epithelial tissue vs Connective tissue
Difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic dna replication
Difference between Exocrine and Endocrine Glands – Exocrine vs Endocrine Glands
Difference Between Exonuclease and Endonuclease
Difference between exotoxins and endotoxins – exotoxins vs endotoxins
Difference between genomic and cdna library
Difference between Gram-Positive and Negative Bacteria – Gram-Negative vs. Gram-Po Bacteria
Difference Between Habitat and Niche – Habitat vs Niche
Difference between Heterochromatin and Euchromatin – Heterochromatin vs Euchromatin
Difference between hot air oven and autoclave
Difference Between Hypertonic vs Hypotonic
Difference between Incomplete dominance and Co-dominance – Incomplete dominance vs Co-dominance
Difference Between Independent and Dependent variables
Difference Between Inhalation and Exhalation – Inhalation vs Exhalation
Difference between innate and acquired immunity
Difference Between Introns and Exons – Introns vs Exons
Difference between MHC Class I and MHC Class II – MHC Class I vs MHC Class II
Difference between Natural and artificial selection – Natural vs artificial selection
Difference between O antigen and H antigen – O vs H antigen
Difference between One-step RT-qPCR and Two-step RT-qPCR
Difference Between Oviparous and Viviparous – Oviparous vs Viviparous
Difference between Phytoplankton and Zooplankton
Difference Between Pinocytosis and Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
Difference between Plant cell and Animal cell – Plant cell vs Animal cell
Difference Between Pollination and Fertilization – Pollination vs Fertilization
Difference Between Primary and Secondary Metabolites
Difference between Primary and Secondary Succession
Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
Difference Between Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic Cell – Prokaryotic cells vs Eukaryotic Cells
Difference between Quantitative and Qualitative Data – Quantitative vs Qualitative Data
Difference between Saturated and Unsaturated fatty acids
Difference Between Simple Diffusion and Facilitated Diffusion – Simple diffusion vs facilitated diffusion
Difference between static quenching and dynamic quenching
Difference between Vascular and Non-vascular plants – Vascular vs Non-vascular plants
Difference Between Virus and Viroids
Difference Between Xylem and Phloem – Xylem vs Phloem
Differences Between Absorption and Adsorption
Differences Between Actin and Myosin – Actin vs Myosin
Differences between Active Immunity and Passive Immunity
Differences Between Acute disease and Chronic Disease
Differences Between Agglutination and Precipitation
Differences Between Amphibians and Reptiles – Amphibians vs Reptiles
Differences between Angiosperm and Gymnosperm – Angiosperm vs Gymnosperm
Differences between Anthrax bacilli and Anthracoid bacilli
Differences Between Antigenic Shift and Antigenic Drift
Differences Between Archaea and Bacteria – Archaea vs Bacteria
Differences between Arteries and Veins – Arteries vs Veins
Differences Between Autotroph and Heterotroph
Differences between Autotroph and Heterotroph – Autotroph vs Heterotroph
Differences between B Cells and T Cells – B Cells vs T Cells
Differences Between Bacteria and Fungi – Bacteria vs Fungi
Differences between Binary fission and multiple fission
Differences between Cytokines and Chemokines
Differences between Diarrhea and Dysentery – Diarrhea vs Dysentery
Differences between DNA and RNA – DNA vs RNA
Differences between DNA Replication and Transcription
Differences Between Genomics and Proteomics
Differences between Humoral Immunity and Cell mediated Immunity
Differences between Invertebrates and Vertebrates
Differences between Meningitis and Encephalitis
Differences Between Mitochondria and Chloroplast – Mitochondria vs Chloroplasts
Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis – Mitosis vs Meiosis
Differences between Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Differences Between Nitrification and Denitrification
Differences between Phenotype and Genotype – Phenotype vs Genotype
Differences between Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum
Differences between Pneumococcus and Viridans streptococci
Differences between Primary and Secondary Succession – Primary vs Secondary Succession
Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Differences between RBC and WBC – RBC vs WBC
Differences between Serum and Plasma – Serum vs Plasma
Differences between Staphylococcus and Streptococcus
Differences between Transcription and Translation – Transcription vs Translation
Differences between Transcription and Translation – Transcription vs Translation
Differences Between Type I Error and Type II Error
Differences Between Viroids and Prions
Differences between Voluntary and Involuntary Muscles – Voluntary vs Involuntary Muscles
Differences between Voluntary muscles and Involuntary muscles – Voluntary vs Involuntary Muscles
Differences between Yeasts and Molds – Yeasts vs Molds
Different Aseptic Techniques in Microbiology Laboratory
Different Buffer preparation for Gel Electrophoresis
Different Plasma Membrane Models
Different Types of Birds
Differential Centrifugation Principle, Protocol, Uses
Digestive System of Frog – With Diagram
Digital Microscope Principle, Parts, Application, Advantages
Dihybrid Cross Definition, Steps, Process, and Examples
Direct Microscopic Count (DMC) Advantage, Disadvantage.
Dissecting Microscope (Stereo Microscope) Definition, Uses, Parts, Principle.
Dissection of Rat With Labeled Diagram – Rat Dissection Labeled
Distribution Of Microorganisms In Aquatic Environment
DNA – Definition, Structure, Properties, Types, Functions
DNA Microarray Principle, Types and Steps involved in cDNA microarrays
DNA Recombination – Definition, Mechanisms, Types
DNA Repair Mechanisms and Types
DNA Replication Mechanism, Definition, Requirements, Steps
DNA Transcription – RNA Synthesis
Dot Blot Protocol, Principle, Definition.
Double Beam Balance – Principle, Procedure, Purpose, Uses
Downstream Processing Steps
Eastern blot Protocol, Principle, Application
Ecological Pyramids – Definition, Types, Importance
Economic Importance of Algae: Food Industry, Chemical Industry, Agriculture, Medicine
Economic Importance of Fungi In Medicine, Industry, Agriculture, and Food.
Economic Importance of Protozoa and Mode of Infection
Effect of antibiotics on the cell wall
Egg Yolk Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Electron Microscope: Definition, Types, Parts, Application, Advantages, Disadvantages
Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Principle, Instrumentation, Applications
Electron Transport Chain Definition, Steps and ATP synthase.
Elek test Principle, Procedure, Result
ELISA test Microbiology Notes: Procedure, Principle, Types, and Application.
EMB Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Embryological Evolution
Endemic, Epidemic, and Pandemic Definition In Microbiology.
Endo Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Endocytosis definition, types and Steps.
Endospore Definition, Formation, Germination, Structure, Resistance
Endospore Staining Principle, Procedure, Result
Endotoxin Definition, Examples, Structure, Virulence Mechanism
Energy Flow in Ecosystem
Enhancer RNAs – Definition, Biogenesis, Functions
Entamoeba Histolytica Life Cycle, Transmission, Disease, Diagnosis, Treatment
Entner–Doudoroff pathway: definition, Steps.
Enzyme Immobilization – Definition, Methods, Advantages, Disadvantages
Enzymes (amylase, protease, lipase) Production
Eosinophil – Definition, Functions, Features, Structure
Epidermophyton floccosum
Epistasis Definition, Types, Examples
Epithelial Tissue Definition, Characteristics, Types, and Functions
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR): Principle, Methods
Escherichia coli(E. coli) morphology, arrangement, Cultural Characteristics, Diagnosis
Esculin Hydrolysis test Principle, Procedure, Result
Essentials of Medical Microbiology By Spurba Sastry (pdf)
Essentials of Medical Pharmacology pdf
Essentials Of Medical Physiology: with Free Review of Medical Physiology pdf
Ethanol Production
Ethidium Bromide Solution Preparation and use
Eukaryotic DNA Replication
Eukaryotic Transcription
Eukaryotic Translation – Protein synthesis in Eukaryotic
Exocytosis Definition, Types, Steps, Examples.
Exon – Definition, Types, Structure, Functions
Experiments on DNA Structure
Expression of MHC Molecules
Extremophiles – Definition, Classification, Examples
Eyespot apparatus Definition, Function, Types, Structure, Proteins
Facilitated Diffusion Definition, Principle, Examples
Factor affecting bacterial growth
Factors affecting the growth of microorganisms in food
Factors Affecting The Growth Of Microorganisms In Foods
Factors Of Ecosystem – Definition, Types
Fascioliasis: Causative agent, Life cycle, Symptoms, Treatment.
Fate of Pyruvate: Acetyl CoA, Lactate, Alcohol Formation.
Fates of Pyruvate
Feeder Pathways for Glycolysis
Fehling’s Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Fermentation Definition, Types, Principle, Products, Stages, Limitations
Fermentation Foods – Bread
Fermentation Foods – Malt Beverages
Fermentation Foods – Vinegar
Fermentation Foods – Wines
Fermentation Media – Media Used For The Growth of Microorganisms in Industries
Fertilization – Definition, Types, Process
Filtration Sterilization Types, Mechanism, Uses
Fimbriae and pili Definition, Structure, Types, Functions, Differences.
Flagella Staining Principle, Procedure, Result
Flagellar Movement Mechanisms and Chemotaxis.
Flora vs Fauna – Differences between Flora and Fauna
Flow Cytometry – Types, Purpose, Reagents, Examples, Application
Flow Cytometry Laboratory for cell viability staining using propidium iodide.
Flow cytometry Principle, Process, Uses
Fluorescence Microscope: Definition, Uses, Principle, Parts.
Food Chain – Definition, Types, Parts, Examples
Food Microflora – Molds
Food Poisoning by Bacillus cereus – Foodborne Toxins
Food Preservation by chemicals – Food Additives
Food Preservation by Drying
Food Preservation by Irradiation
Food Preservation By Low Temperatures
Food Preservation by Using High Temperatures
Food Spoilage General Principles – Chemical Changes Caused by Microorganisms
Food Web – Definition, Types, Examples
Foodborne Microorganism – Bacteria
Foodborne Microorganism – Yeasts
Forest Ecosystem – Definition, Types, Functions
Fragmentation Reproduction Definition, Examples, Advantages, Disadvantages
Frederick Griffith Experiment: Bacterial transformation
Fructose Metabolism Pathway – Fructolysis
Funaria Structure, Characteristics, Reproduction
Fungi Characteristics, Occurrence, Cell Structure, Nutrition, Thallus Organisation, Mycelium.
Fungi Definition, Characteristics, Morphology, Importance, Thallus Organization.
Fungi: Types of Fungi and Their Reproduction.
gab Operon – Definition, Structure, Regulation
Galactose (Gal) Operon – Structure, Regulation
Gametogenesis – Definition, Steps
Gamma-ray (γ-ray) Spectroscopy
Gas chromatography Definition, principle, working, uses
GasPak Anaerobic System Principle, Application
GATE BT Biotechnology Solved Question Paper Download (2021-1999)
GATE Life Science Solved Question Paper Download 2021-2007
Gel Filtration Chromatography Principle, Components, Steps, Types, Application
Gel Permeation Chromatography
Gel Staining Procedure for PAGE
Gelatin Hydrolysis Test Purpose, Principle, Procedure, Result.
Gene Cloning – Steps, Definition, Applications
Gerhardt’s test Principle, Procedure, Result.
Giardiasis definition, treatment, symptoms, diagnosis, prevention.
Gibbs Free Energy
Giemsa Stain: Preparation, Procedure, Principle, Composition and Application
Giolitti-Cantoni Broth for Staphylococcus aureus
Glandular Epithelium functions, definition, structure, examples
Glorious History of Microbiology
Gluconeogenesis Pathway: Definition, Steps, Substrates, Importance, Regulation.
Gluconic Acid Production
Glycocalyx Definition, Composition, Types, Functions.
Glycolysis Pathway: Definition, Steps.
Golgi Apparatus Definition, Structure, Functions, and Diagram
Gram Staining Procedure, Principle, and Results
Gram-Sure (L-Alanine-7-amido-4-methylcourmarin) Test 
Grassland Ecosystem – Definition, Types, Components
Growth at 42 Test – Growth of Non Fermentative Bacteria at 42°C
Haemagglutination Test – Principle, Procedure, Result, Material
Hanging Drop Method Principle, Procedure, Result
Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, Twentieth Edition (Vol.1 & Vol.2) pdf
Heart Infusion Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Heat Coagulation Test of Proteins – Principles, Procedure, Result
Hektoen Enteric Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Hemagglutination Inhibition Test
Hemocytometer and Haemocytometry
Hershey–Chase experiment On DNA
Heterogeneous Nuclear RNA (hnRNA)
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
Hippurate Hydrolysis Test Principle, Procedure, Result
History of the Microscope
Hopkins Cole test (Adamkiewicz–Hopkins) Principle, Procedure, Result
Host Pathogen Interaction
Host pathogen Interaction and Its Importance.
Hot air oven Definition, Principle, Parts, Application, Procedure.
How  L-arabinose operon different from other operons?
How Are Vaccines Made?
How can you prevent pipetting mistakes?
How do Carbohydrates impacts your health?
How do your hormones work?
How does alcohol make you drunk?
How to Use a Compound Microscope
How To Use A Microscope Properly
How to use Measuring Cylinder to measure volume?
How to Write a Perfect Microbiology Essay
Human Female Reproductive System Organs, Structure, Functions
Human Male Reproductive System Organs, Structure, Functions
Humoral Immune Response – Definition, Mechanism
Hybridization Probes definition, uses, Preparation, Types.
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Hypersensitivity – Definition, Types, Mechanisms
Hypersensitivity Type I, II, III and IV- Summary in table form
Hypotonic Solution Definition, Examples
IIT JAM Biological Sciences (BL) 2013 Solved Question Paper Download
IIT JAM Biological Sciences (BL) 2014 Solved Question Paper Download
IIT JAM Biological Sciences (BL) 2015 Solved Question Paper Download
IIT JAM Biological Sciences (BL) 2016 Solved Question Paper Download
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IIT JAM Biotechnology 2005 Solved Question Paper Download
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IIT JAM Biotechnology 2021 Solved Question Paper Download
Immunity – Definition, Types
Immunodeficiencies – Definition, Types, Animal models(Nude and SCID mice)
Immunodiffusion reaction 
Immunoelectrophoresis test Principle, Applications, Procedure, Results, Advantages and Disadvantages.
Immunofluorescence Quenching Solution Preparation and Application
Immunological Tolerance – Definition, Mechanism, Types
Immunotherapy For Tumors
IMViC test procedure, Purpose, Result, and Organism List.
Inclusion bodies Definition, Classification, Examples
Incubator: Definition, Principle, Components, Types, Operating Procedure, Use.
Indole test – Principle, Procedure, Uses.
Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy Principle, Instrumentation, Application
Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis (Translation)
Innate Immunity – Definition, Types, Mechanism
Interactions In communities – Types, Definition, Examples
Intermediate Filaments – Definition, Structure, Function 
Introduction of Microbiology and Microbe
Intron – Definition, Structure, Functions
Inverted microscope Images and definition, principle, Uses, Parts.
Iodine Test – Iodine test for starch Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses
Ion Exchange Chromatography
Iron and Manganese Cycles – Steps, Importance
Iron-Hematoxylin Stain Principle, Procedure, Result
Isolation of Microorganism From Air
Isolation of Microorganisms from Soil
Isomerism Definition, Types, Examples, Structures
Kingdom Animalia – Different Phylum, Classification, Characteristics
Kingdom Monera Classification, Characteristics, Microscopy Methods
Kinyoun stain (Acid Fast Cold) Method: Principle, Procedure, Result
Kligler’s Iron Agar Test Principle, Procedure, Result
KOH Test (Potassium hydroxide test) Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses
Krebs Cycle Definition, Steps, Products, Regulation.
L-form bacteria Definition, Size and shape, Culturing , Applications
L-Glutamic Acid Production
Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections
Laboratory Flask – Definition, Types, Uses
Laboratory Rules: Basic Rules Of A Microbiology Laboratory
Laboratory Test Tube – Definition, Types, Uses
Lac Operon – Definition, Structure, Mechanisms
Lactic Acid Production
Lactobacilli MRS Broth and Agar Composition, Preparation, Principle
Lactobacillus MRS Broth Test Principle, Procedure, and Results
Lactophenol Cotton Blue Staining Principle, Procedure, Result.
Laminar flow hood/cabinet Definition, Parts, Principle, Application
Latex agglutination test – Procedure, Principle, Inhibition, Limitation, Uses.
Lectin Pathway of the Complement System
Leishmaniasis Life cycle, Treatment, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention, Types, Distribution.
Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) Test Principle, Procedure, Results
Levels of Ecological Organization – Definition, Examples
Levinthal’s Medium Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Life cycle of Algae: Haplontic, Diplontic, Diplohaplontic, and Triphasic.
Lineweaver–Burk Plot
Lipase Test Principle, Procedure, results
Lipid Hydrolysis Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Lipids Definition, Structure, Properties, Types, Examples, and Functions
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Structure, Functions
Liquid Waste Management
List of Top Biotechnology Techniques
Litmus Milk Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Loeffler Medium Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) Media Composition, Preparation, Uses
Lymphatic filariasis: Wuchereria bancrofti
Lysine decarboxylase test – Principle, Procedure, Result
Lysine Iron Agar (LIA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Lysine Iron Agar (LIA) Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Lysogeny broth (LB) Preparation
Lysosome Definition, Structure, Functions, Types
Lysosomes Definition, Structure, Formation, Functions, Types and Diagram
MacConkey Agar Composition, Uses, Colony Characteristics
Macrophage – Definition, Structure, Mechanism, Functions
Major Histocompatibility Complex II Structure and Functions
Malonate Test Principle, Procedure, Results
Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA)
Marchantia Definition, Structure, Reproduction, Classification
Martin Lewis Agar Composition, Preparation, Principle, Uses
Mast cell – Definition, Structure, Functions
Mayer’s Hemalum Solution Preparation and Application
McIntosh and Fildes’ Anaerobic Jar Principle, Procedure
Measurement of Bacterial Growth
Measurement Of Microorganisms – Micrometry
Medical Significance of Gram-Negative Cocci and Coccobacilli
Meiosis – Definition, Types, Steps
Membrane Carbohydrate Types, Structure, and Function
Membrane Filtration Method, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages, Applications.
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells – Definition, Structure, Location, and Function
Mesophyll cells Definition, Location, Structure, Function, Microscopy
Mesosomes Definition, Functions
Metaphase in Mitosis and Meiosis – Metaphase 1 and Metaphase 2
Method for Balancing in Laboratory – Weight or Mass Measurement
Methods of food preservation – Physical and Chemical Methods 
Methyl Red and Voges Proskauer Test – Principle, Result
Methylene Blue Reduction Test
MHC Class I, Class II, Antigen Processing, and Presentation
MHC Genes – H-2 Complex and HLA Complex
MHC Molecules – Major Histocompatibility Complex
MIC Test Strip – Quantitative assay for determining the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
Microbe-Microbe Interactions
Microbe-Plant interaction – Types, Examples
Microbial Control Methods
Microbial Food Spoilage Causes, Classification, Process, Factors
Microbodies: Peroxisomes and Glyoxysomes
Microdase Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Microfilaments – Definition, Structure, Function
Microorganisms in food Spoilage – Microbes in food spoilage
Micropipettes Components, Types, Applications, Techniques
Micropropagation Definition, Application, Advantages, Disadvantages
Microscope Slides Preparation
Microsporum spp. culture, infections, treatment, prevention.
Microtubules – Definition, Structure, Functions
Middlebrook Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Milk Pasteurization Definition, Procedure, Types, Purpose
Millon’s Test Definition, Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses
miRNA (microRNA) Structure, Functions, Application
Mitochondria – Definition, Structure, Functions, Origin
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Replication Mechanism, Factors
Mitochondrial Shuttles and Transporter Proteins.
Mitosis – Definition, Phases, Significance, Functions
Mode of action of antibiotics and classification.
Mode of Transport Across Plasma Membrane
Modified Kirby-Bauer Disc Diffusion Method
Modified Thayer Martin Agar Composition, Preparation, and Principle
Moist Heat Sterilization Principle, Advantages, Disadvantages
Molisch’s Test Objective, Principle, Procedure, Result
Monkeypox Virus – Pictures, Structure, Classification, Prevention, Treatment, Spread
Monoclonal Antibodies – Definition, Types, Production, Side Effect, Applications
Monocot and Dicot Leaves Definition, Structure, Differences, and Examples
Monocot Seed Definition, Structure, Example, Characteristics
Monosaccharides -definition, structure, types, examples
Most Infectious and Deadliest Diseases Caused By Bacteria
Most Probable Number (MPN) Test: Principle, Procedure, Results
mRNA Degradation in Prokaryotic Cells
mRNA Structure, Definition, Functions, Types
Mucic acid test – Principle, Procedure, Result
Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissues (MALT)
Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) Composition, Principle, Preparation
Mutualism – Definition, Types, Examples
Mycorrhiza – Definition, Types, Examples, Importance
Myeloperoxidase staining Principle, Procedure, Result.
Nagler Reaction – Lecithinase Test
Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE)
Natural killer (NK) cells 
Negative Staining Principle, Procedure, Result
Nelson Somogyi Method for Determination of reducing sugars
Neutrophil – Definition, Structure, Functions
New York City Agar Composition, Preparation, Result, Uses
Ninhydrin Test Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses
Nitrate Reduction Test Procedure, Principle, Result
Nitrite Reduction Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Nitrocefin test Principle, Procedure, Uses
Nitrogen Cycle – Definition, Steps, Importance
Nitrogen Fixation – Definition, Importance, Processes
Nodulation Steps, Structure, Functions
Normal Human Microbiota Definition, Types, Advantages and Disadvantages.
Northern Blotting Protocol, Principle, Application, Result
Norwalk Virus (Norovirus) Symptoms, Transmission, Prevention, Treatment
Nosocomial Infection and its Prevention, Source, Transmission
Novobiocin Susceptibility Test Principle, Procedure, Results
Nuclear Fast Red Solution Preparation and Application
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy
Nuclear Staining by Giemsa stain: Procedure, Principle, Result
Nuclear Staining of Filamentous Fungi
Nucleoid Definition, Functions, Characteristics
Nucleotides and Nucleosides – Definition, Structure, Function, Types
Nucleus Definition, Structure, Diagram, and Functions
Nutrient Agar Media Composition, Preparation, Uses
Nutritional types of bacteria: Classification of bacteria based on Nutritional Requirement
Nylander’s Test for Carbohydrates Principle, Procedure, Result
o-Nitrophenyl-b-D-Galactopyranoside (ONPG) Test Principle, Procedure
OF (Oxidation-Fermentation) Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure
Oil Immersion technique, objectives, Resolving Power, Used for, Types.
Okazaki Fragments Definition, Formation, Importance
One Step Growth Curve of Virus
Operon – Structure, Definition, Types, Functions
Optochin Susceptibility Test: Principle, Objective, Procedure And Results
Organs of Immune System – Lymphoid Organs
Oriental Fermented Foods 
Ornithine Decarboxylase Test – Principle, Procedure, Result
Osazone Test for Carbohydrates Principle, Procedure, Result
Ouchterlony Double Immunodiffusion Method
Overview of Bacillus anthracis
Oxidase Test Definition, Principle, Procedure, Result, Application
Oxidation Pond – Definition, Mechanisms
Oxygen Toxicity – Mechanism, Damages, Protective Mechanism
P-value definition, significance, formula, table, finding p-value
PAM Sequence (Protospacer adjacent motif) – Definition, Functions, Properties
Papanicolaou Staining (Pap stain)
Paper Chromatography Principle, Types, Instrumentation, Steps
Paramecium Cell Definition, Characteristics, Classification, Movement, Diagram.
Parasexual cycle in Fungi
Parasitism – Definition, Types, Examples
Parasporal Crystal Stain Principle, Procedure, Result
Parts of a Microscope and their function
Parts of a Microscope and Their Functions
Passive Immunity – Definition, Types, Examples
Pathogen Virulence Factors Definition and Pathogenicity
Penicillin Production
Pentose Phosphate Pathway: Definition, Importance, Steps.
Peptone Water Composition, Preparation, Uses, Principle
Peptone Yeast Extract Glucose Broth
Peripheral Protein – Structure, Examples, Functions
Peroxide Value Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Petri dish – Definition, Structure, Types, Uses
PH Meter Definition, Principle, Parts, Types, Application, Procedure.
Phagocytosis Definition, Steps, and Example
Phase Contrast Microscopy: definition, parts, uses, working principle.
Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method for Total Carbohydrates
Phenylalanine Deaminase Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Phenylethyl Alcohol Agar – Composition, Preparation, Uses, Limitation
Phosphorus Cycle Definition, Steps, Examples, Significance, and Human Impacts
Photo bioreactor Definition, Types, Application, Advantages
Photosynthesis definition, steps, equation, process, and diagram
Photosynthetic Bacteria Examples, Definition, Vs Chemosynthetic Bacteria
Phycology by Robert Edward Lee pdf Download
Phylum Annelida Definition, Characteristics, Classification
Phylum Arthropoda Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Examples
Phylum Aschelminthes classification, characteristics, examples
Phylum Aschelminthes Definition, Examples, Characteristics
Phylum Ascomycota Overview
Phylum Chordata Definition, Characteristics, Classes
Phylum Coelenterata (Cnidaria) Definition, Classification, Characteristics
Phylum Ctenophora Definition, Classification, Characteristics, examples
Phylum Echinodermata Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Examples
Phylum Hemichordata Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Examples
Phylum Mollusca Classification, Definition, Characteristics, Examples
Phylum Nematoda Classification, Definition, Characteristics, Examples
Phylum Platyhelminthes Classification, Definition, Characteristics, Examples
Phylum Porifera Definition, Characteristics, Classification
Physical Methods of Sterilization
Physiological Buffer preparation
Phytoremediation – Definition, Types, Mechanisms
Picric Acid Test for Glucose – Principle, Procedure, Result
Plant cell Structure, Definition, Diagram, Organelles
Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)
Plant Tissue Culture Definition, techniques, Media composition, types, application.
Plasmid Replication – Mechanism With Diagram
Plasmids Definition, Structure, Functions, Examples
Plasmodium Definition, Life Cycle, Characteristics, Morphology, Diagram
Plastids Definition, Types, Structure, Functions
Plate Count Agar (PCA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Play Quiz On Contribution of Microbiologists
Play Quiz on Locomotion and Movement
Pneumocystosis – Causative Agent, Treatment, Prevention
Pocket Microscope Definition, Principle, Application
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Steps, Principle, Application
Post-glycolysis processes
Post-transcriptional Modification
Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) Principle, Composition, Preparation, Uses
Pour Plate Method Principle, Procedure, Objective, Result, Advantages
Precipitation Reaction – Definition, Principle, Types
Predation – Definition, Types, Examples
Preparation of Crystal Violet for the Gram Stain
Preparation of Different pH Buffer
Preparation of Liquid Medium/broth
Preparation of Solid Media – Agar deep tubes, Agar Slants, Plates
Preparation Of Temporary Cotton Plugs and Permanent Cotton Plugs
Preservation and Spoilage of Canned Foods
Preservation and Spoilage of Sugars and Sugar Products
Preservation, and Spoilage of Fish and Other Seafoods
Preservation, and Spoilage of Meats and Meat Products
Preservation, and Spoilage of Milk and Milk Products
Preservation, and Spoilage of Poultry
Preservation, and Spoilage of Vegetables and Fruit
Primary and Secondary Immune Response
Principles of Food Preservation
Prions: Definition, Structure, Function, Disease, Prevention, Control, Treatment, Transmission.
Producers – Definition, Types, Examples
Production Strain – Screening, Development, Preservation, Preparation
Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell
Prokaryotic cells Definition, Structure, Characteristics, Division.
Prokaryotic DNA Replication
Prokaryotic Translation Steps, Requirements.
Protein Purification Methods
Proteins Definition, Properties, Structure, Classification, Functions
Proteus – Overview
Protoplast Culture Methods
Protoplasts Definition, Application and Protoplasts Culture
Protoplasts fusion – Somatic fusion
Protoplasts Isolation
Protozoa Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Structure, Diseases, Examples
Protozoa Definition, Occurrence, Ecology
Protozoa: Structure and Locomotor Organelles
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Definition, Structure, Function, Types
Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)
PYR Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Pyramid of Biomass – Definition, Types, Examples
Pyrimidines and Purines Nucleotides – Structure, Occurrence and Properties
Pyronin Y (PY) Solution Preparation and Application
Pyruvate Broth Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Result
Quantitative Buffy Coat Test (QBC Test)
Questionnaires and Schedules
Quiz On Kingdom Animalia
Radial Immunodiffusion Principle, Procedure, Result
Radiation Sterilization Types, Mechanism, Applications
Rapid Furfural Test for Glucose and Fructose
RCF Centrifugation and RPM Centrifugation
Real Time PCR Principle, Protocol, Application, Advantages.
Recombinant DNA Technology Steps, Application, Tools, and Limitations
Red Blood Cell Morphology – Size, Shape, Color and Inclusion Bodies
Regulation of Glycolysis
Reproduction in Proto­zoa: Sexual reproduction, Asexual reproduction
Reproduction of Fungi: Sexual, Asexual and Vegetative Reproduction
Restriction Digest Protocol, Principle, result
Reverse Blood Grouping Principle, Procedure, Result
Reverse CAMP test Principle, Procedure, Result
Rhizopus stolonifer: Life Cycle, Habitat, Nutrition, Disease, Importance.
Rhizosphere – Definition, Microflora, Structure, Importance
Ribosome Definition, Structure, Size, Location, Function, Characteristics
Ribozymes (RNA enzymes) – Definition, Structure, Function, Types
Ring Precipitation Test Principle, Procedure, Result
RNA – Definition, Structure, Types, Application
RNA Interference (RNAi) – Definition, Mechanism, Application
RNA polymerase Definition, Types, and Functions
RNA Splicing Definition, Types, Mechanisms
Robertson’s Cooked Meat Medium (RCM Medium) Preparation, Composition.
Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis Principle, Procedure, Result, Application.
Rolling Circle Replication –  Mechanism, Application
Rothera’s test Principle, Procedure, Result.
Rough vs Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
rRNA Structure, Definition, Types, Functions
Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA)
Saccharomyces Life cycle, Morphology, Economic Importance.
Salmonella Shigella Agar (SS Agar) Principle, Composition, Application
Salmonellosis – Food Infection and Food Poisoning by Salmonella
Salt Meat Broth
Salt Tolerance Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Result
Sample Preparation and composition
Sandwich (Davson–Danielli) model of cell membrane
Saprophytes: Definition, Examples, Characteristics
Scanning Electron Microscope: Definition, Parts, Application, Principle, Advantages.
Schistosomiasis: Life cycle, Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention.
Schizosaccharomyces: Morphology, Reproduction, life cycle
Scope of Epidemiology
Scope of Microbiology
SDS-PAGE – Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE)
Secretory Vesicles Definition, Structure, Functions, and Diagram
Selenite F Broth Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Seliwanoff’s Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Semiconservative Replication of DNA – Mechanism
Sere Community – Definition, Classification
Serial Dilution Method Definition, Procedure, Application
Sewage Treatment – Wastewater Treatment Procedure
Sheep blood agar Composition, Principle, Procedure, Uses.
shRNA (Short-hairpin RNA) Structure, Definition, Mechanism
Simmons citrate agar test – Procedure, Principle, Result, Example.
Simple columnar epithelium definition, structure, functions, examples
Simple diffusion definition, principle, examples, applications
Simple Microscope: Working Principle, Uses, Parts, and their Functions.
Simple Staining Procedure, Principle, Result
siRNA (Small Interfering RNA) – Structure, Mechanism, Functions
Size, Shape, and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells With Picture and Example
Sludge Wastes Treatment – Methods, Types, Factors, Uses
Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) – Structure, Types, Definition
Soil Microorganisms – Types, Examples, Factors, Importance 
Soil profile and Soil Horizon – Definition, Types, Importance
Solid State Fermentation (SSF)
Solid Waste Management
Solubility Tests of Proteins Principle, Procedure, Result, Application
Solution and Cell/Culture/Growth Media Preparations
Sorbitol MacConkey Agar Composition, Preparation and Uses
SOS Repair – SOS Response in Bacteria
Southern Blotting Technique Principle, Procedure, Importance
Spectrophotometer Principle, Uses, Components.
Sphaeroplasts Definition, Formation, Applications
Sphagnum habit, characteristics, structure, reproduction
Spliceosome – Definition, Types, Structure, Mechanism
Spoilage and Defects of Fermented Dairy Products 
Spontaneous Generation Theory and Biogenesis theory
Spread‌ ‌Plate‌ ‌Method‌: Procedure, Principle, Purpose, Result.
SSC (Northern Blot, 20x) and SSPE (Blot, 20x, pH 7.4) Preparation and Recipe
Staphylococcus aureus
Starch Casein Agar (SCA)- Composition, Principle, Preparation
Starch Hydrolysis Test – Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses
Stem cell – Definition, Types, Application, Advantages
Stokes Disc Diffusion Method Principle, Procedure, Result.
Stratified cuboidal epithelium
Stratified squamous epithelium Function, Definition, Location, Types.
Streak Plate Method: Patterns, Procedure, Principle
Streptococcus Selective Agar Composition, Preparation, and Principle
Stroma in chloroplast and Stroma in Animal Tissue
Structure and Function of Ecosystems – Definition, Types
Structure and Functions of Major Histocompatibility Complex I
Structure of Gram-negative cell wall
Structure of Gram-positive cell wall
Study of Aspergillus by using Temporary Mount Technique
Study of Chlamydomonas and Volvox by using Whole mount
Study of Penicillium using Temporary Mount
Study of Rhizopus by using Temporary Mount.
Subculturing technique for Broth Culture
Subculturing Technique In Agar Slant/Agar Plate
Sucrose gradient centrifugation
Sudan Black B Staining
Sulfur Reduction Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Result
Sulphur cycle – Definition, Steps, Types, Importance
Superantigens (SAgs) – Definition, Structure, Examples
SXT Test – Principle, Procedure, Result
Symbiosis Relationship- Definition, Types, Examples
Synchronous culture Definition, Methods, Application.
T cell (T Lymphocyte) – Definition, Types, Development
T Dependent Antigen and T Independent Antigen
Taproot vs Fibrous root – Difference between Taproot and Fibrous root 
TCBS Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Temporary Wet Mount (TWM) technique for observation of Living Organisms.
Terrestrial Ecosystem – Definition, Types, Examples
Testing of Disinfectants (evaluation methods of disinfectants)
Textbook of Microbiology for Nursing by Dr. C.P. Baveja (pdf)
Thallus Organisation in Algae
The Beer–Lambert law
The Complement Pathway, Activation, Functions, and Deficiencies.
The genes you don’t get from your parents (but can’t live without)
The Glyoxylate Cycle: Definition, Steps, Functions.
The Laws of Thermodynamics
The most lethal viruses of all Time
The Wobble Hypothesis
Theta Model of Replication – Definition, Mechanism
Thin Layer Chromatography Principle, Components, Procedure, Application
Thioglycollate Broth Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Tollens’ Test Definition, Principle, Procedure, Result, Application.
Toluidine blue stain of Mast Cell.
Tonicity Definition, Types, Examples
Tools Used in Microbiology Laboratory
Top 10 Difference Between Monera, Protista, Fungi, Animalia, Plantae
Top 11 Books for Cell Biology
Top 13 Lab Techniques You Must Know
Top 14 books for Industrial Microbiology
Top 14 Difference Between Monera and Protista
Top 15 Books for Food and diary Microbiology
Top 15 Books for Molecular Biology
Top 16 Infectious and Deadliest Diseases Caused By Bacteria
Top 17 Books for Genetics
Top 18 books for Environmental Microbiology
Top 22 Difference Between Bacteria and Virus
Top 30 Differences Between Bacteria, Archae, and Eukarya.
Top 32 Difference Between Light Microscope and Electron Microscope
Top 6 Books on Microbial Physiology and Metabolism
Top and Best Books on Virology
Top Biotech Companies of India
Top M.Sc in Microbiology (Private and Government) colleges in West Bengal (Wb)
Total Red Blood Cell (RBC) Count – Procedure, Principle, result
Total White Blood Cell (WBC) Count – Total Leucocyte Count (TLC)
Traditional Indian Fermented Foods 
Transcription In Prokaryotes Definition, Stages, Significance
Transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) Definition, Structure, Properties
Transgenic Plants Examples, Definition, Procedure, Application
Transitional epithelium Definition, Structure, Function, Location, and Example
Transmission Electron Microscope: Definition, Parts, Working Principle, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages
Transmission of Diseases
Transplantation – Definition, Types, Examples
Transport Media Used in Laboratories
Transposition – Definition, Types, Mechanism
Triple Beam Balance – Parts, Procedure, Uses
Triple Sugar Iron (TSI) Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Triple Sugar Iron (TSI) Agar test Principle, Procedure, Result
Tris-SDS Buffer Preparation of pH 6.8 and 8.8 for SDS PAGE
tRNA Structure, Definition, Functions, Types
Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Tryptone Soya Broth for the enrichment of Staph. aureus
Tryptophan (Trp) Operon –  Repressible operon
Tumor Antigen
Tumor Immunology – Definition, features
Tumors – Types, Tumor Antigens, Risk Factors
Type I Hypersensitivity Reaction 
Type II (Cytotoxic) Hypersensitivity
Type III Hypersensitivity
Type IV or Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH)
Types of Blood Collection Tubes and Their uses
Types of Centrifuge, Definition, Principle, and Applications
Types of Microscopes with their applications
Types of Plant Cell
Types of Spectroscopy with Definition, Principle, Steps, Uses
Types of Staining Techniques
Types of Stains used in Microbiology
Types of Vaccines With Examples
Ultracentrifuge Definition, Principle, Types, Uses
Urease Test Principle, Procedure, Result
USB Microscope Principle, Definition, Parts, Examples, Uses
UV-Vis Spectroscopy Principle, Instrumentation, Applications, Advantages, and Limitation
Vacuole Staining – Observation of Vacuoles under Microscope
Vacuoles Definition, Structure, Types, Functions, and Diagram
Vegetative Propagation Definition, Types, Methods, Advantages
Vesicles Definition, Structure, Types, and Functions
Viability Staining Method For Bacteria
Viral Entry Into The Host Body
Viral Immunology
Viral Life Cycle: Steps of Viral Infection
Viral Pathogenesis Definition, Mechanisms, Factors
Viral Replication Cycle – Definition, Steps, Mechanisms
Viral Spread and Organ Invasion of Virus
Viral Transport Media (VTM) Definition, Principle, Preparation, Application
Viroids Definition, Infection, Structure, Examples, Diagnostic, Origin, Disease.
Virus Structure and Application, Origin, Definition, Characters, and Example.
Vitamin A – Structure, Functions, Properties, Source and deficiency
Vitamin B12 Production
Voges Proskauer (VP) Test Principle, Procedure, Results
Vortex Mixer – Definition, Principle, Parts, Uses
VRBA Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Waste Source, Definition, Types, Impacts
Watson and Crick Model of DNA
Western Blot Protocol, Principle, Result.
What are Immune Booster Foods?
What are Telomeres and Telomerases?
What does ph stand for?
What is a calorie?
What is Algae? Characteristics and Occurrence of Algae.
What is bacteria? Types, Structure, Shapes, Morphology, Nutrition, Growth, Habitat, Reproduction, Examples.
What is Cryosleep? Is Cryosleep Possible?
What is Entropy?
What is Phycology?
What is voluntary muscle?
Whittaker’s Five Kingdom Classification – Advantages and Limitations
Why are Green Algae considered as the Ancestors of Land Plants?
Why is it so hard to cure cancer?
Widal Test Principle, Procedure, Result, Advantages, Limitation
Wine Production
Working Principle of Laboratory Hot water bath with Operating Procedure.
Wright Giemsa Stain Protocol, Principle, Result.
Wright Stain Principle, Procedure, Result
X and V factor Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Result
X Ray fish – Reproduction, Habitat, Diet, Anatomy
X-Ray Crystallography
X-Ray Spectroscopy Principle, Instrumentation and Applications
Xanthoproteic test Principle, Procedure, Result, Application
Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) Agar Composition, Preparation, Principle, Uses
YEPD Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Yersinia Selective Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Ziehl Neelsen Stain Principle, Procedure, Result
Zygomycosis (Mucormycosis) – Causative Agent, Symptoms, Prevention, Treatment
Zygomycota Overview
Binomial Nomenclature Definition, Rules, Examples, Advantages, Disadvantages
Branches of Microbiology
Budding Definition, Process, Advantages, Disadvantages
Career In Microbiology and Its Importance
Careers of Microbiologist: Scope, Salary, Jobs, Courses, Eligibility.
Carl Woese’s Classification – Three Domain Classification
Cell membrane (Plasma Membrane) structures and functions
Centrifugation of blood – Blood Separation
Chemical Method of Sterilization – Types, Mode of Action, Application, Examples.
Continuous Culture Definition, Advantage, Application, Systems
Culture medium Definition, Preparation, Classification
Diauxic growth Curve, Definition, Occurrence.
Direct Microscopic Count (DMC) Advantage, Disadvantage.
Filtration Sterilization Types, Mechanism, Uses
Fragmentation Reproduction Definition, Examples, Advantages, Disadvantages
Glorious History of Microbiology
Introduction of Microbiology and Microbe
Measurement of Bacterial Growth
Membrane Filtration Method, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages, Applications.
Microbial Control Methods
Physical Methods of Sterilization
Radiation Sterilization Types, Mechanism, Applications
RCF Centrifugation and RPM Centrifugation
Scope of Epidemiology
Scope of Microbiology
Spontaneous Generation Theory and Biogenesis theory
Sucrose gradient centrifugation
Synchronous culture Definition, Methods, Application.
Testing of Disinfectants (evaluation methods of disinfectants)
The Beer–Lambert law
Vegetative Propagation Definition, Types, Methods, Advantages
Whittaker’s Five Kingdom Classification – Advantages and Limitations
Antibiotic Resistance: Definition, Mechanism, Example.
Antibiotics definition, Characteristics, Classification, Administration
Antifungal Drug – Mode of Action
Antimicrobial Agent and Chemotherapy
Antiviral Drug – Mode of Action
Dexamethasone: Mechanism, Application, Side effects.
Effect of antibiotics on the cell wall
Mode of action of antibiotics and classification.
An Overview of Bacillus cereus
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST)
Archaebacteria Definition, Types, Characteristics, Structure, Examples
Asexual Reproduction in bacteria – Definition, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages
Bacterial Capsule: Definition, Functions, Composition, Types, Demonstration, and examples.
Bacterial cell wall structure and Composition.
Bacterial Culture Media Classification, Ingredients, Functions and Preparation.
Bacterial Culture Technique
Bacterial Flagella: Definition, Structure, Types, Functions, Rotation, Examples.
Bacterial Growth and Different Environmental Factors Affect Bacterial Growth
Bacterial Growth Curve and Different Phases
Bacterial toxin: Definition, Types, Example.
Cell Wall Structure of Archaebacteria 
Chemosynthetic Bacteria Examples, Definition, Pathways, and Processes
Classification of Bacteria
Clostridium botulinum – Overview
Clostridium perfringens – Overview
Clostridium tetani – Overview
Coliform Bacteria – Definition, Classification, Examples
Colony Morphology of Bacteria and Examples
Cultivation of Anaerobic Bacteria
Cultivation of bacteria
Endotoxin Definition, Examples, Structure, Virulence Mechanism
Escherichia coli(E. coli) morphology, arrangement, Cultural Characteristics, Diagnosis
Extremophiles – Definition, Classification, Examples
Factor affecting bacterial growth
Fimbriae and pili Definition, Structure, Types, Functions, Differences.
Flagellar Movement Mechanisms and Chemotaxis.
Food Poisoning by Bacillus cereus – Foodborne Toxins
Glycocalyx Definition, Composition, Types, Functions.
L-form bacteria Definition, Size and shape, Culturing , Applications
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Structure, Functions
Medical Significance of Gram-Negative Cocci and Coccobacilli
Nutritional types of bacteria: Classification of bacteria based on Nutritional Requirement
Overview of Bacillus anthracis
Oxygen Toxicity – Mechanism, Damages, Protective Mechanism
Photosynthetic Bacteria Examples, Definition, Vs Chemosynthetic Bacteria
Proteus – Overview
Protoplast Culture Methods
Protoplasts Definition, Application and Protoplasts Culture
Protoplasts fusion – Somatic fusion
Protoplasts Isolation
Salmonellosis – Food Infection and Food Poisoning by Salmonella
Size, Shape, and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells With Picture and Example
Sphaeroplasts Definition, Formation, Applications
Staphylococcus aureus
Structure of Gram-negative cell wall
Structure of Gram-positive cell wall
What is bacteria? Types, Structure, Shapes, Morphology, Nutrition, Growth, Habitat, Reproduction, Examples.
Binary fission Definition, Types, Steps, Examples
Embryological Evolution
Facilitated Diffusion Definition, Principle, Examples
Glandular Epithelium functions, definition, structure, examples
Hypotonic Solution Definition, Examples
Kingdom Animalia – Different Phylum, Classification, Characteristics
Kingdom Monera Classification, Characteristics, Microscopy Methods
Mesophyll cells Definition, Location, Structure, Function, Microscopy
P-value definition, significance, formula, table, finding p-value
Phylum Annelida Definition, Characteristics, Classification
Phylum Arthropoda Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Examples
Phylum Aschelminthes classification, characteristics, examples
Phylum Aschelminthes Definition, Examples, Characteristics
Phylum Chordata Definition, Characteristics, Classes
Phylum Coelenterata (Cnidaria) Definition, Classification, Characteristics
Phylum Ctenophora Definition, Classification, Characteristics, examples
Phylum Echinodermata Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Examples
Phylum Hemichordata Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Examples
Phylum Mollusca Classification, Definition, Characteristics, Examples
Phylum Nematoda Classification, Definition, Characteristics, Examples
Phylum Platyhelminthes Classification, Definition, Characteristics, Examples
Phylum Porifera Definition, Characteristics, Classification
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Definition, Structure, Function, Types
Simple columnar epithelium definition, structure, functions, examples
Simple diffusion definition, principle, examples, applications
Stratified cuboidal epithelium
Stratified squamous epithelium Function, Definition, Location, Types.
Tonicity Definition, Types, Examples
Transgenic Plants Examples, Definition, Procedure, Application
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Structure, Synthesis, Functions
Amino Acids Physical Properties, Structure, Classification, Functions
Carbohydrates Definition, Examples, Structure, Types, and Functions
Electron Transport Chain Definition, Steps and ATP synthase.
Entner–Doudoroff pathway: definition, Steps.
Fate of Pyruvate: Acetyl CoA, Lactate, Alcohol Formation.
Fates of Pyruvate
Feeder Pathways for Glycolysis
Gibbs Free Energy
Gluconeogenesis Pathway: Definition, Steps, Substrates, Importance, Regulation.
Glycolysis Pathway: Definition, Steps.
Isomerism Definition, Types, Examples, Structures
Krebs Cycle Definition, Steps, Products, Regulation.
Lineweaver–Burk Plot
Lipids Definition, Structure, Properties, Types, Examples, and Functions
Mitochondrial Shuttles and Transporter Proteins.
Monosaccharides -definition, structure, types, examples
Pentose Phosphate Pathway: Definition, Importance, Steps.
Post-glycolysis processes
Protein Purification Methods
Proteins Definition, Properties, Structure, Classification, Functions
Regulation of Glycolysis
The Glyoxylate Cycle: Definition, Steps, Functions.
The Laws of Thermodynamics
The Wobble Hypothesis
Vitamin A – Structure, Functions, Properties, Source and deficiency
What is Entropy?
Biosafety Cabinet: Definition, Classification (Class I, II, III), Working Mechanism, Application, Features.
Biosafety Guidelines: Biosafety guidelines and regulations
Biosafety levels With their Primary and Secondary Barriers.
List of Top Biotechnology Techniques
Micropropagation Definition, Application, Advantages, Disadvantages
Animal Cell Diagram, Structure, Types, Functions
Cell Coat – Definition, Functions, Structure
Cell Cycle – Definition, Phases, Regulation
Cell Disruption Definition, Methods, Application
Cell Organelles Structure and their Functions
Cell Signaling – Definition, Types, Functions
Cell Structure and Functions – Cell Organelles
Centrioles and Basal Bodies – Definition, Structure, Functions
Channel Protein – Definition, Structure, Function, Example
Chloroplasts Definition, Characteristics, Structure, Location, Functions, and Diagram
Chromosome Abnormalities Types, Mechanism, Detection
Chromosome Definition, Function, Structure, Types
Cilia and Flagella Definition, Structure, Function
Cyclic AMP pathway (Cyclic adenosine monophosphate)
Cytoplasm Functions, Structure, Definition, and Diagram
Cytoplasmic Matrix – Definition, Structure, Properties
Cytoskeleton – Definition, Structure, Functions 
Different Plasma Membrane Models
Endocytosis definition, types and Steps.
Endospore Definition, Formation, Germination, Structure, Resistance
Epithelial Tissue Definition, Characteristics, Types, and Functions
Exocytosis Definition, Types, Steps, Examples.
Fertilization – Definition, Types, Process
Gametogenesis – Definition, Steps
Golgi Apparatus Definition, Structure, Functions, and Diagram
Inclusion bodies Definition, Classification, Examples
Intermediate Filaments – Definition, Structure, Function 
Lysosome Definition, Structure, Functions, Types
Lysosomes Definition, Structure, Formation, Functions, Types and Diagram
Meiosis – Definition, Types, Steps
Membrane Carbohydrate Types, Structure, and Function
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells – Definition, Structure, Location, and Function
Mesosomes Definition, Functions
Metaphase in Mitosis and Meiosis – Metaphase 1 and Metaphase 2
Microbodies: Peroxisomes and Glyoxysomes
Microfilaments – Definition, Structure, Function
Microtubules – Definition, Structure, Functions
Mitochondria – Definition, Structure, Functions, Origin
Mitosis – Definition, Phases, Significance, Functions
Mode of Transport Across Plasma Membrane
Nucleoid Definition, Functions, Characteristics
Nucleus Definition, Structure, Diagram, and Functions
Peripheral Protein – Structure, Examples, Functions
Plant cell Structure, Definition, Diagram, Organelles
Plasmids Definition, Structure, Functions, Examples
Plastids Definition, Types, Structure, Functions
Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell
Prokaryotic cells Definition, Structure, Characteristics, Division.
Red Blood Cell Morphology – Size, Shape, Color and Inclusion Bodies
Ribosome Definition, Structure, Size, Location, Function, Characteristics
Sandwich (Davson–Danielli) model of cell membrane
Secretory Vesicles Definition, Structure, Functions, and Diagram
Stroma in chloroplast and Stroma in Animal Tissue
Transitional epithelium Definition, Structure, Function, Location, and Example
Types of Plant Cell
Vacuoles Definition, Structure, Types, Functions, and Diagram
Vesicles Definition, Structure, Types, and Functions
12 Difference Between Darkfield and bright Field Microscope
13 Difference Between Binary Fission and Budding
13 Difference Between Heterozygous and Homozygous
14 Difference Between Brightfield and Phase-contrast Microscopy
14 Differences between Primary and Secondary Immune Response
16 Difference Between Brightfield and Fluorescence Microscope.
19 Differences Between Transudates and Exudates
20 Difference Between Bacteria and Fungi
20 Difference Between Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscope
20 Differences between Pili and Flagella
23 Difference Between Batch and Continuous Culture
28 Difference Between Spermatogenesis and Spermiogenesis in human cells.
30 Comparison between Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria
8 Difference Between antiseptic and Antibiotic
Afferent vs Efferent Neuron – Differences between Afferent and Efferent Neuron
Cold-blooded vs Warm-blooded animals
Comparison Between Acid Fast and Non Acid Fast Bacteria
Comparison Between Gram Stain and Acid Fast
Comparison Between Kinyoun Stain vs Ziehl neelsen stain
Difference Between Active Transport and Passive Transport – Active vs Passive Transport
Difference between Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration – Aerobic vs Anaerobic Respiration
Difference Between Analytical Balance and Triple Beam Balance
Difference between Antigen and Antibody
Difference Between Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
Difference between Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
Difference between Biomagnification and Bioaccumulation
Difference Between Biotic and Abiotic Factors – Biotic vs Abiotic Factors
Difference Between Bone and Cartilage – Bone vs Cartilage
Difference Between Breathing and Respiration – Breathing vs Respiration
Difference Between Cation and Anion – Cation vs Anion
Difference Between cDNA and Genomic DNA – cDNA vs genomic DNA
Difference between celsius and fahrenheit – Celsius Vs Fahrenheit Scale
Difference between Chromosome and Chromatid – Chromosome vs Chromatid
Difference between cilia and flagella
Difference Between Classical, Alternative and Lectin Pathway
Difference Between Communicable and non-communicable diseases
Difference Between Compound Microscope and Simple Microscope.
Difference Between Diploid and Haploid – Diploid vs Haploid
Difference between endocytosis and exocytosis (endocytosis vs exocytosis)
Difference between enzymes and hormones – enzymes vs hormones
Difference between Epithelial tissue and Connective tissue – Epithelial tissue vs Connective tissue
Difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic dna replication
Difference between Exocrine and Endocrine Glands – Exocrine vs Endocrine Glands
Difference Between Exonuclease and Endonuclease
Difference between exotoxins and endotoxins – exotoxins vs endotoxins
Difference between genomic and cdna library
Difference between Gram-Positive and Negative Bacteria – Gram-Negative vs. Gram-Po Bacteria
Difference Between Habitat and Niche – Habitat vs Niche
Difference between Heterochromatin and Euchromatin – Heterochromatin vs Euchromatin
Difference between hot air oven and autoclave
Difference Between Hypertonic vs Hypotonic
Difference between Incomplete dominance and Co-dominance – Incomplete dominance vs Co-dominance
Difference Between Independent and Dependent variables
Difference Between Inhalation and Exhalation – Inhalation vs Exhalation
Difference between innate and acquired immunity
Difference Between Introns and Exons – Introns vs Exons
Difference between MHC Class I and MHC Class II – MHC Class I vs MHC Class II
Difference between Natural and artificial selection – Natural vs artificial selection
Difference between O antigen and H antigen – O vs H antigen
Difference between One-step RT-qPCR and Two-step RT-qPCR
Difference Between Oviparous and Viviparous – Oviparous vs Viviparous
Difference between Phytoplankton and Zooplankton
Difference Between Pinocytosis and Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
Difference between Plant cell and Animal cell – Plant cell vs Animal cell
Difference Between Pollination and Fertilization – Pollination vs Fertilization
Difference Between Primary and Secondary Metabolites
Difference between Primary and Secondary Succession
Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
Difference Between Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic Cell – Prokaryotic cells vs Eukaryotic Cells
Difference between Quantitative and Qualitative Data – Quantitative vs Qualitative Data
Difference between Saturated and Unsaturated fatty acids
Difference Between Simple Diffusion and Facilitated Diffusion – Simple diffusion vs facilitated diffusion
Difference between static quenching and dynamic quenching
Difference between Vascular and Non-vascular plants – Vascular vs Non-vascular plants
Difference Between Virus and Viroids
Difference Between Xylem and Phloem – Xylem vs Phloem
Differences Between Absorption and Adsorption
Differences Between Actin and Myosin – Actin vs Myosin
Differences between Active Immunity and Passive Immunity
Differences Between Acute disease and Chronic Disease
Differences Between Agglutination and Precipitation
Differences Between Amphibians and Reptiles – Amphibians vs Reptiles
Differences between Angiosperm and Gymnosperm – Angiosperm vs Gymnosperm
Differences between Anthrax bacilli and Anthracoid bacilli
Differences Between Antigenic Shift and Antigenic Drift
Differences Between Archaea and Bacteria – Archaea vs Bacteria
Differences between Arteries and Veins – Arteries vs Veins
Differences Between Autotroph and Heterotroph
Differences between Autotroph and Heterotroph – Autotroph vs Heterotroph
Differences between B Cells and T Cells – B Cells vs T Cells
Differences Between Bacteria and Fungi – Bacteria vs Fungi
Differences between Binary fission and multiple fission
Differences between Cytokines and Chemokines
Differences between Diarrhea and Dysentery – Diarrhea vs Dysentery
Differences between DNA and RNA – DNA vs RNA
Differences between DNA Replication and Transcription
Differences Between Genomics and Proteomics
Differences between Humoral Immunity and Cell mediated Immunity
Differences between Invertebrates and Vertebrates
Differences between Meningitis and Encephalitis
Differences Between Mitochondria and Chloroplast – Mitochondria vs Chloroplasts
Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis – Mitosis vs Meiosis
Differences between Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Differences Between Nitrification and Denitrification
Differences between Phenotype and Genotype – Phenotype vs Genotype
Differences between Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum
Differences between Pneumococcus and Viridans streptococci
Differences between Primary and Secondary Succession – Primary vs Secondary Succession
Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Differences between RBC and WBC – RBC vs WBC
Differences between Serum and Plasma – Serum vs Plasma
Differences between Staphylococcus and Streptococcus
Differences between Transcription and Translation – Transcription vs Translation
Differences between Transcription and Translation – Transcription vs Translation
Differences Between Type I Error and Type II Error
Differences Between Viroids and Prions
Differences between Voluntary and Involuntary Muscles – Voluntary vs Involuntary Muscles
Differences between Voluntary muscles and Involuntary muscles – Voluntary vs Involuntary Muscles
Differences between Yeasts and Molds – Yeasts vs Molds
Flora vs Fauna – Differences between Flora and Fauna
Hypersensitivity Type I, II, III and IV- Summary in table form
Rough vs Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Taproot vs Fibrous root – Difference between Taproot and Fibrous root 
Top 10 Difference Between Monera, Protista, Fungi, Animalia, Plantae
Top 14 Difference Between Monera and Protista
Top 22 Difference Between Bacteria and Virus
Top 30 Differences Between Bacteria, Archae, and Eukarya.
Top 32 Difference Between Light Microscope and Electron Microscope
Pathogen Virulence Factors Definition and Pathogenicity
Transmission of Diseases
Abiotic Factors – Definition, Types, Examples
Air microbiology and Dispersal of Microbes 
Amensalism – Definition, Types, Examples
Aquatic Ecosystem – Definition, Types. Examples
Bioaccumulation – Definition, Mechanisms, Applications
Bioaerosol – Definition, Types, Collection, Transmission
Biological Magnification -Definition, Causes, Effects
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) Definition, Importance, Measurement
Bioremediation – Definition, Types, Application
Biotic Factors – Definition, Types, Examples
Carbon cycle – Definition, Steps, Importance, Examples
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) – Definition, Measurement, Uses
Climax Community – Definition, Characteristics, Theories
Commensalism – Definition, Types, Example
Competition Interaction – Definition and Types with Examples
Composting – Methods, Types, Factors, Importance
Consumers – Definition, Types, Examples
Decomposers – Definition, Mechanisms, Types, Example
Degradation of Hydrocarbons (oil spills)
Degradation of Pesticides – Types, Mechanisms
Denitrification – Definition, Process, Factors
Desert Ecosystem – Definition, Types, Importance
Distribution Of Microorganisms In Aquatic Environment
Ecological Pyramids – Definition, Types, Importance
Energy Flow in Ecosystem
Factors Of Ecosystem – Definition, Types
Food Chain – Definition, Types, Parts, Examples
Food Web – Definition, Types, Examples
Forest Ecosystem – Definition, Types, Functions
Grassland Ecosystem – Definition, Types, Components
Host Pathogen Interaction
Interactions In communities – Types, Definition, Examples
Iron and Manganese Cycles – Steps, Importance
Levels of Ecological Organization – Definition, Examples
Liquid Waste Management
Microbe-Microbe Interactions
Microbe-Plant interaction – Types, Examples
Mutualism – Definition, Types, Examples
Mycorrhiza – Definition, Types, Examples, Importance
Nitrogen Cycle – Definition, Steps, Importance
Nitrogen Fixation – Definition, Importance, Processes
Nodulation Steps, Structure, Functions
Oxidation Pond – Definition, Mechanisms
Parasitism – Definition, Types, Examples
Phosphorus Cycle Definition, Steps, Examples, Significance, and Human Impacts
Phytoremediation – Definition, Types, Mechanisms
Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)
Predation – Definition, Types, Examples
Producers – Definition, Types, Examples
Pyramid of Biomass – Definition, Types, Examples
Rhizosphere – Definition, Microflora, Structure, Importance
Sewage Treatment – Wastewater Treatment Procedure
Sludge Wastes Treatment – Methods, Types, Factors, Uses
Soil Microorganisms – Types, Examples, Factors, Importance 
Soil profile and Soil Horizon – Definition, Types, Importance
Solid Waste Management
Structure and Function of Ecosystems – Definition, Types
Sulphur cycle – Definition, Steps, Types, Importance
Symbiosis Relationship- Definition, Types, Examples
Terrestrial Ecosystem – Definition, Types, Examples
Waste Source, Definition, Types, Impacts
Endemic, Epidemic, and Pandemic Definition In Microbiology.
Endemic, Epidemic, and Pandemic Definition In Microbiology.
5′ Capping and Polyadenylation – Definition, Mechanism
Arabinose Operon – Definition, Structure, Mechanism 
Characteristic of Genetic Code
Dihybrid Cross Definition, Steps, Process, and Examples
DNA – Definition, Structure, Properties, Types, Functions
DNA Recombination – Definition, Mechanisms, Types
Enhancer RNAs – Definition, Biogenesis, Functions
Epistasis Definition, Types, Examples
Exon – Definition, Types, Structure, Functions
Experiments on DNA Structure
Frederick Griffith Experiment: Bacterial transformation
gab Operon – Definition, Structure, Regulation
Galactose (Gal) Operon – Structure, Regulation
Hershey–Chase experiment On DNA
Heterogeneous Nuclear RNA (hnRNA)
How  L-arabinose operon different from other operons?
Intron – Definition, Structure, Functions
Lac Operon – Definition, Structure, Mechanisms
miRNA (microRNA) Structure, Functions, Application
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Replication Mechanism, Factors
mRNA Degradation in Prokaryotic Cells
mRNA Structure, Definition, Functions, Types
Nucleotides and Nucleosides – Definition, Structure, Function, Types
Operon – Structure, Definition, Types, Functions
Plasmid Replication – Mechanism With Diagram
Pyrimidines and Purines Nucleotides – Structure, Occurrence and Properties
Ribozymes (RNA enzymes) – Definition, Structure, Function, Types
RNA – Definition, Structure, Types, Application
RNA Interference (RNAi) – Definition, Mechanism, Application
RNA Splicing Definition, Types, Mechanisms
rRNA Structure, Definition, Types, Functions
shRNA (Short-hairpin RNA) Structure, Definition, Mechanism
siRNA (Small Interfering RNA) – Structure, Mechanism, Functions
Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) – Structure, Types, Definition
Spliceosome – Definition, Types, Structure, Mechanism
Transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) Definition, Structure, Properties
Transposition – Definition, Types, Mechanism
tRNA Structure, Definition, Functions, Types
Tryptophan (Trp) Operon –  Repressible operon
Watson and Crick Model of DNA
Active Immunity – Definition, Types, Examples
Adaptive (Acquired) Immunity
Agglutination Reaction Definition, Types, Applications
Agglutination test definition, Types, Uses, Advantages, Disadvantages
Alternative Pathway of Complement System
Anatomical and Physiological Barriers of Immune System
Animal Models for Autoimmune Diseases
Antibody – Structure, Types, Functions and Properties
Antigen – Definition, Types, Structure, Properties
Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs)
Antigen Processing and Presentation – Cytosolic Pathway and Endocytic Pathway 
Antigen-Antibody Interaction – Definition, Types, Examples, Properties
Autoimmunity – Definition, Types, Tolerance, Pathogenesis, Mechanisms
B cell or B lymphocytes – Definition, Function, Types
Basophil – Definition, Structure, Functions
Biological Consequences of Complement Activation
Body Lines of Defense – Types, Examples
Cancer Immunotherapy 
Cell Mediated Immune Response 
Cells of Immune System – Types and Examples
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) 
Classical Pathway of Complement Activation
Complement System Definition, Activation, Effects, Regulation
Cytotoxic T cells
Dendritic cell – Definition, Location, Structure, Types, Functions
ELISA test Microbiology Notes: Procedure, Principle, Types, and Application.
Eosinophil – Definition, Functions, Features, Structure
Expression of MHC Molecules
Fermentation Media – Media Used For The Growth of Microorganisms in Industries
Flow Cytometry – Types, Purpose, Reagents, Examples, Application
Flow cytometry Principle, Process, Uses
Humoral Immune Response – Definition, Mechanism
Hypersensitivity – Definition, Types, Mechanisms
Immunity – Definition, Types
Immunodeficiencies – Definition, Types, Animal models(Nude and SCID mice)
Immunodiffusion reaction 
Immunological Tolerance – Definition, Mechanism, Types
Immunotherapy For Tumors
Innate Immunity – Definition, Types, Mechanism
Latex agglutination test – Procedure, Principle, Inhibition, Limitation, Uses.
Lectin Pathway of the Complement System
Macrophage – Definition, Structure, Mechanism, Functions
Major Histocompatibility Complex II Structure and Functions
Mast cell – Definition, Structure, Functions
MHC Class I, Class II, Antigen Processing, and Presentation
MHC Genes – H-2 Complex and HLA Complex
MHC Molecules – Major Histocompatibility Complex
Monoclonal Antibodies – Definition, Types, Production, Side Effect, Applications
Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissues (MALT)
Natural killer (NK) cells 
Neutrophil – Definition, Structure, Functions
Nosocomial Infection and its Prevention, Source, Transmission
Organs of Immune System – Lymphoid Organs
Passive Immunity – Definition, Types, Examples
Phagocytosis Definition, Steps, and Example
Precipitation Reaction – Definition, Principle, Types
Primary and Secondary Immune Response
Stem cell – Definition, Types, Application, Advantages
Structure and Functions of Major Histocompatibility Complex I
Superantigens (SAgs) – Definition, Structure, Examples
T cell (T Lymphocyte) – Definition, Types, Development
T Dependent Antigen and T Independent Antigen
The Complement Pathway, Activation, Functions, and Deficiencies.
Transmission of Diseases
Transplantation – Definition, Types, Examples
Tumor Antigen
Tumor Immunology – Definition, features
Tumors – Types, Tumor Antigens, Risk Factors
Type I Hypersensitivity Reaction 
Type II (Cytotoxic) Hypersensitivity
Type III Hypersensitivity
Type IV or Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH)
Acetic Acid Production
Beer Production
Bioprocess Engineering Definition, Types, Uses
Brief History And Developments In Industrial Microbiology
Citric Acid Production
Downstream Processing Steps
Enzyme Immobilization – Definition, Methods, Advantages, Disadvantages
Enzymes (amylase, protease, lipase) Production
Ethanol Production
Gluconic Acid Production
L-Glutamic Acid Production
Lactic Acid Production
Penicillin Production
Photo bioreactor Definition, Types, Application, Advantages
Production Strain – Screening, Development, Preservation, Preparation
Vitamin B12 Production
Wine Production
Agglutination test definition, Types, Uses, Advantages, Disadvantages
Antifungal Drug – Mode of Action
Antimicrobial Agent and Chemotherapy
Antiviral Drug – Mode of Action
Bacterial Food Poisoning: Symptoms, Prevention, Causes & Treatment.
ELISA test Microbiology Notes: Procedure, Principle, Types, and Application.
Endemic, Epidemic, and Pandemic Definition In Microbiology.
Host pathogen Interaction and Its Importance.
Normal Human Microbiota Definition, Types, Advantages and Disadvantages.
Nosocomial Infection and its Prevention, Source, Transmission
Pathogen Virulence Factors Definition and Pathogenicity
Transmission of Diseases
Contribution of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Contribution of Louis Pasteur in Microbiology.
Contribution of Microbiologist: Ignaz Semmelweis, Hans Christian Gram, Charles Lavaran, Fanny Hesse, Marjory Stephenson, Kiyoshi Shiga, Emil von Behring.
Contribution of Microbiologist: Selman Waksman, Julius Wagner-Jauregg, Charles Nicolle, Gerhard Domagk, Howard Florey, Ernst Chain, Max Theiler.
Contribution of Microbiologists: Joseph Lister, Alexander Fleming, Edward Jenner, Lazzaro Spallanzani, Martinus Beijerinck.
Contribution of Paul Ehrlich and John Snow In Microbiology
Contribution of Robert Koch and Koch’s Postulates
Whittaker’s Five Kingdom Classification – Advantages and Limitations
Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) – Definition, Principle, Application
Bright Field Microscope: Definition, Parts, Working Principle, Application.
Compound Microscope Parts, Diagram Definition, Application, Working Principle
Confocal Microscope Principle, Uses, Parts, Advantages, and Disadvantages.
Darkfield Microscope: Definition, Principle, Application.
Digital Microscope Principle, Parts, Application, Advantages
Dissecting Microscope (Stereo Microscope) Definition, Uses, Parts, Principle.
Electron Microscope: Definition, Types, Parts, Application, Advantages, Disadvantages
Fluorescence Microscope: Definition, Uses, Principle, Parts.
History of the Microscope
How to Use a Compound Microscope
Inverted microscope Images and definition, principle, Uses, Parts.
Microscope Slides Preparation
Oil Immersion technique, objectives, Resolving Power, Used for, Types.
Parts of a Microscope and their function
Parts of a Microscope and Their Functions
Phase Contrast Microscopy: definition, parts, uses, working principle.
Pocket Microscope Definition, Principle, Application
Scanning Electron Microscope: Definition, Parts, Application, Principle, Advantages.
Simple Microscope: Working Principle, Uses, Parts, and their Functions.
Transmission Electron Microscope: Definition, Parts, Working Principle, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages
Types of Microscopes with their applications
USB Microscope Principle, Definition, Parts, Examples, Uses
Bacterial Transduction: Generalized and Specialized Transduction
Blotting Definition, Types, Application
Cas9 Protein – Structure, Types, Function
cDNA cloning – Definition, Principle, Steps 
cDNA library – Definition, Principle, Construction, Uses
cDNA Synthesis – Principle, Protocol 
Central Dogma Replication, Transcription, Translation
CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Editing – Definition, Mechanism, Application
DNA – Definition, Structure, Properties, Types, Functions
DNA Microarray Principle, Types and Steps involved in cDNA microarrays
DNA Repair Mechanisms and Types
DNA Replication Mechanism, Definition, Requirements, Steps
DNA Transcription – RNA Synthesis
Eukaryotic DNA Replication
Eukaryotic Transcription
Eukaryotic Translation – Protein synthesis in Eukaryotic
Experiments on DNA Structure
Frederick Griffith Experiment: Bacterial transformation
Gene Cloning – Steps, Definition, Applications
Hershey–Chase experiment On DNA
Hybridization Probes definition, uses, Preparation, Types.
Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis (Translation)
miRNA (microRNA) Structure, Functions, Application
Nucleotides and Nucleosides – Definition, Structure, Function, Types
Okazaki Fragments Definition, Formation, Importance
PAM Sequence (Protospacer adjacent motif) – Definition, Functions, Properties
Post-transcriptional Modification
Prokaryotic DNA Replication
Prokaryotic Translation Steps, Requirements.
Pyrimidines and Purines Nucleotides – Structure, Occurrence and Properties
Real Time PCR Principle, Protocol, Application, Advantages.
Recombinant DNA Technology Steps, Application, Tools, and Limitations
RNA polymerase Definition, Types, and Functions
Rolling Circle Replication –  Mechanism, Application
Semiconservative Replication of DNA – Mechanism
SOS Repair – SOS Response in Bacteria
Theta Model of Replication – Definition, Mechanism
Transcription In Prokaryotes Definition, Stages, Significance
Watson and Crick Model of DNA
What are Telomeres and Telomerases?
Aspergillosis – Causative Agent, Symptoms, Types, Treatment
Basidiomycetes Life cycle, Characteristics, Significance, Mycelium
Candidiasis – Types, Causative Agent, Treatment, Prevention, Symptoms
Classification of Fungi: Gymnomycota, Mastigomycota, Amastigomycota.
Economic Importance of Fungi In Medicine, Industry, Agriculture, and Food.
Fungi Characteristics, Occurrence, Cell Structure, Nutrition, Thallus Organisation, Mycelium.
Fungi Definition, Characteristics, Morphology, Importance, Thallus Organization.
Fungi: Types of Fungi and Their Reproduction.
Microsporum spp. culture, infections, treatment, prevention.
Parasexual cycle in Fungi
Pneumocystosis – Causative Agent, Treatment, Prevention
Reproduction of Fungi: Sexual, Asexual and Vegetative Reproduction
Rhizopus stolonifer: Life Cycle, Habitat, Nutrition, Disease, Importance.
Saccharomyces Life cycle, Morphology, Economic Importance.
Saprophytes: Definition, Examples, Characteristics
Schizosaccharomyces: Morphology, Reproduction, life cycle
Zygomycosis (Mucormycosis) – Causative Agent, Symptoms, Prevention, Treatment
11 Types of Algae With their example.
Algae: Algae Reproduction
Cellular Structure of Algae with diagram
Characters of Algae | General Characters of Algae
Chytridiomycota Overview
Economic Importance of Algae: Food Industry, Chemical Industry, Agriculture, Medicine
Epidermophyton floccosum
Eyespot apparatus Definition, Function, Types, Structure, Proteins
Life cycle of Algae: Haplontic, Diplontic, Diplohaplontic, and Triphasic.
Phylum Ascomycota Overview
Thallus Organisation in Algae
What is Algae? Characteristics and Occurrence of Algae.
What is Phycology?
Zygomycota Overview
Prions: Definition, Structure, Function, Disease, Prevention, Control, Treatment, Transmission.
Amebiasis by by Entamoeba histolytica
Amoeba Cell Labeled Structure, Characteristics, Movement, Nutrition, Reproduction, Disease, Habitat.
Economic Importance of Protozoa and Mode of Infection
Fascioliasis: Causative agent, Life cycle, Symptoms, Treatment.
Leishmaniasis Life cycle, Treatment, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention, Types, Distribution.
Lymphatic filariasis: Wuchereria bancrofti
Paramecium Cell Definition, Characteristics, Classification, Movement, Diagram.
Plasmodium Definition, Life Cycle, Characteristics, Morphology, Diagram
Protozoa Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Structure, Diseases, Examples
Protozoa Definition, Occurrence, Ecology
Protozoa: Structure and Locomotor Organelles
Reproduction in Proto­zoa: Sexual reproduction, Asexual reproduction
Schistosomiasis: Life cycle, Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention.
Animal Cell Culture Types, Application, Advantages and disadvantages.
Antiviral Chemotherapy
Baltimore classification System of Viruses
Dexamethasone: Finally good news for COVID-19 Patients
Dexamethasone: Mechanism, Application, Side effects.
Diagnostic Techniques of Viruses – Molecular and Immunological Techniques
How Are Vaccines Made?
Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections
Monkeypox Virus – Pictures, Structure, Classification, Prevention, Treatment, Spread
Norwalk Virus (Norovirus) Symptoms, Transmission, Prevention, Treatment
One Step Growth Curve of Virus
Pathogen Virulence Factors Definition and Pathogenicity
Transmission of Diseases
Types of Vaccines With Examples
Viral Entry Into The Host Body
Viral Immunology
Viral Life Cycle: Steps of Viral Infection
Viral Pathogenesis Definition, Mechanisms, Factors
Viral Replication Cycle – Definition, Steps, Mechanisms
Viral Spread and Organ Invasion of Virus
Viroids Definition, Infection, Structure, Examples, Diagnostic, Origin, Disease.
Virus Structure and Application, Origin, Definition, Characters, and Example.
MCQ on Basic of Biochemistry (Part 1)
MCQ on Microscope Part 1
MCQs on History of Microbiology (Part 1)
MCQs on History of Microbiology (Part 2)
MCQs on History of Microbiology (Part 3)
MCQs on History of Microbiology (Part 4)
MCQs on Medical Microbiology
MCQs on Microbiology Part 2
MCQs on Microorganisms
Microbiology MCQ With Answer Key (Part 1)
Microbiology Question Answers On Morphology of Bacterial Cell
Entamoeba Histolytica Life Cycle, Transmission, Disease, Diagnosis, Treatment
Fascioliasis: Causative agent, Life cycle, Symptoms, Treatment.
Giardiasis definition, treatment, symptoms, diagnosis, prevention.
Leishmaniasis Life cycle, Treatment, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention, Types, Distribution.
Pathogen Virulence Factors Definition and Pathogenicity
Schistosomiasis: Life cycle, Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention.
4-Methylumbelliferyl-β-D-Glucuronide (MUG) Test Principle, Procedure, Results
Acetamide utilization Test Principle, Procedure, result
Acetate Utilization Test Principle, Procedure, Results
Alkaline Phosphatase Test of Milk- Determination of Phosphatase Activity of Milk
Ames Test Principle, Procedure, Result
API (Analytical Profile Index) 20E Test Result, Principle, Procedure
Bacitracin Susceptibility Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Benedict’s Test Principle, Reagent Preparation, Procedure, Result, Limitation
Beta (β) Lactamase Test Principle, Procedure, Results
Bial test for pentoses Principle, Objective, Procedure, Result
Bile Solubility Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Biochemical Test of Bacillus anthracis
Biochemical Test of Bacillus cereus
Biochemical Test of Hafnia alvei
Biochemical Test of Providencia stuartii
Biochemical Test of Salmonella Typhi
Biuret Test For Protein Principle, Procedure, Result, Application.
BOD Test – Biological Oxygen Demand Test
Butyrate Disk Test Principle, Procedure, Result
CAMP Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Carbohydrate Fermentation Test – Sugar Fermentation Test
Casein Hydrolysis Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Cetrimide Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Results
COD Test – Test for Chemical Oxygen Demand In Wastewater
Coliforms Presence/Absence (PA) Test
Decarboxylase Test Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses
Deoxyribonuclease (DNase) Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Esculin Hydrolysis test Principle, Procedure, Result
Fehling’s Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Fructose Metabolism Pathway – Fructolysis
Gelatin Hydrolysis Test Purpose, Principle, Procedure, Result.
Gerhardt’s test Principle, Procedure, Result.
Gram-Sure (L-Alanine-7-amido-4-methylcourmarin) Test 
Growth at 42 Test – Growth of Non Fermentative Bacteria at 42°C
Heat Coagulation Test of Proteins – Principles, Procedure, Result
Hippurate Hydrolysis Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Hopkins Cole test (Adamkiewicz–Hopkins) Principle, Procedure, Result
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Test Principle, Procedure, Result
IMViC test procedure, Purpose, Result, and Organism List.
Indole test – Principle, Procedure, Uses.
Iodine Test – Iodine test for starch Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses
Kligler’s Iron Agar Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Lactobacillus MRS Broth Test Principle, Procedure, and Results
Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) Test Principle, Procedure, Results
Lipase Test Principle, Procedure, results
Lipid Hydrolysis Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Litmus Milk Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Lysine decarboxylase test – Principle, Procedure, Result
Malonate Test Principle, Procedure, Results
Methyl Red and Voges Proskauer Test – Principle, Result
Microdase Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Millon’s Test Definition, Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses
Molisch’s Test Objective, Principle, Procedure, Result
Mucic acid test – Principle, Procedure, Result
Nelson Somogyi Method for Determination of reducing sugars
Ninhydrin Test Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses
Nitrate Reduction Test Procedure, Principle, Result
Nitrite Reduction Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Nitrocefin test Principle, Procedure, Uses
Novobiocin Susceptibility Test Principle, Procedure, Results
Nylander’s Test for Carbohydrates Principle, Procedure, Result
o-Nitrophenyl-b-D-Galactopyranoside (ONPG) Test Principle, Procedure
OF (Oxidation-Fermentation) Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure
Optochin Susceptibility Test: Principle, Objective, Procedure And Results
Ornithine Decarboxylase Test – Principle, Procedure, Result
Osazone Test for Carbohydrates Principle, Procedure, Result
Oxidase Test Definition, Principle, Procedure, Result, Application
Peroxide Value Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method for Total Carbohydrates
Phenylalanine Deaminase Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Picric Acid Test for Glucose – Principle, Procedure, Result
PYR Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Pyruvate Broth Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Result
Rapid Furfural Test for Glucose and Fructose
Reverse CAMP test Principle, Procedure, Result
Rothera’s test Principle, Procedure, Result.
Salt Tolerance Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Result
Seliwanoff’s Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Simmons citrate agar test – Procedure, Principle, Result, Example.
Solubility Tests of Proteins Principle, Procedure, Result, Application
Starch Hydrolysis Test – Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses
Sulfur Reduction Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Result
SXT Test – Principle, Procedure, Result
Tollens’ Test Definition, Principle, Procedure, Result, Application.
Triple Sugar Iron (TSI) Agar test Principle, Procedure, Result
Urease Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Voges Proskauer (VP) Test Principle, Procedure, Results
X and V factor Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Result
Alkaline Peptone Water Preparation, Composition, Principle, Application.
Amies Transport Medium Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Anaerobic Blood Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Anaerobic Culture Media Examples, Definition
Ashdown’s Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Baird Parker Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
BCYE Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Bird Seed Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation
Bismuth Sulphite Agar (BSA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Blood Agar Definition, Preparation, Composition, Application, and limitation.
Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) Agar- Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Brilliant Green Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Brucella Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Burkholderia Cepacia Agar Base Preparation, Composition, Principle
Campylobacter Blood Agar (CVA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Cary Blair Transport Medium Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Cetrimide Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Charcoal Selective Medium Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Chocolate Agar Media Principle, Composition, Preparation, Result
CHROMagar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Classification of Culture Media
CLED Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Common Fungal Culture Media and Their Uses
Culture Media Examples, Components and Primary Purpose
Cystine Glucose Blood Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Cystine Tryptic Agar Composition, Preparation, Principle, Uses
Czapek’s Agar (CZA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Decarboxylase Broth Protocol
Deoxycholate Citrate Agar (DCA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Egg Yolk Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
EMB Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Endo Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Heart Infusion Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Hektoen Enteric Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Lactobacilli MRS Broth and Agar Composition, Preparation, Principle
Levinthal’s Medium Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Loeffler Medium Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) Media Composition, Preparation, Uses
Lysine Iron Agar (LIA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Lysogeny broth (LB) Preparation
Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA)
Martin Lewis Agar Composition, Preparation, Principle, Uses
Middlebrook Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Modified Thayer Martin Agar Composition, Preparation, and Principle
Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) Composition, Principle, Preparation
New York City Agar Composition, Preparation, Result, Uses
Nutrient Agar Media Composition, Preparation, Uses
Peptone Water Composition, Preparation, Uses, Principle
Peptone Yeast Extract Glucose Broth
Phenylethyl Alcohol Agar – Composition, Preparation, Uses, Limitation
Plate Count Agar (PCA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) Principle, Composition, Preparation, Uses
Preparation of Liquid Medium/broth
Preparation of Solid Media – Agar deep tubes, Agar Slants, Plates
Robertson’s Cooked Meat Medium (RCM Medium) Preparation, Composition.
Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA)
Salmonella Shigella Agar (SS Agar) Principle, Composition, Application
Salt Meat Broth
Selenite F Broth Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Sheep blood agar Composition, Principle, Procedure, Uses.
Sorbitol MacConkey Agar Composition, Preparation and Uses
Starch Casein Agar (SCA)- Composition, Principle, Preparation
Streptococcus Selective Agar Composition, Preparation, and Principle
TCBS Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Thioglycollate Broth Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Transport Media Used in Laboratories
Triple Sugar Iron (TSI) Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Tryptone Soya Broth for the enrichment of Staph. aureus
Viral Transport Media (VTM) Definition, Principle, Preparation, Application
VRBA Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) Agar Composition, Preparation, Principle, Uses
YEPD Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Yersinia Selective Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses
Myeloperoxidase staining Principle, Procedure, Result.
Cross Match Principle, Procedure, Result.
Total Red Blood Cell (RBC) Count – Procedure, Principle, result
Total White Blood Cell (WBC) Count – Total Leucocyte Count (TLC)
Detect the presence of specific antibody and quantitate the amount of antibody in patient’s serum
Haemagglutination Test – Principle, Procedure, Result, Material
Hemagglutination Inhibition Test
Ouchterlony Double Immunodiffusion Method
Radial Immunodiffusion Principle, Procedure, Result
Ring Precipitation Test Principle, Procedure, Result
Affinity chromatography Principle, Types, Steps, Applications
Analytical Balance – Diagram, Principle, Parts, Types, Uses
Autoclave Bag – Application, Types, Applications, Advantages
Autoclave Definition, Working Principle, Components, Operating procedure.
Bioreactor Types, Design, Parts, Applications, Limitations
BOD Incubator: Definition, Principle, Components, Procedure, Application.
Bright Field Microscope: Definition, Parts, Working Principle, Application.
Bunsen Burner – Definition, Principle, Parts, Functions
Chromatography Principle, Types, Applications
Classification of Chromatography
Colony Counter – Definition, Types, Parts, Principle
Column Chromatography Procedure, Instruments, Application, Advantages
Common Glassware used in A Microbiology Laboratory
Compound Microscope Parts, Diagram Definition, Application, Working Principle
Confocal Microscope Principle, Uses, Parts, Advantages, and Disadvantages.
Conical Flask (Erlenmeyer flask) –  Diagram, Definition, Types, Uses
Darkfield Microscope: Definition, Principle, Application.
Density Gradient Centrifugation Principle, Protocol, Uses
Differential Centrifugation Principle, Protocol, Uses
Dissecting Microscope (Stereo Microscope) Definition, Uses, Parts, Principle.
Double Beam Balance – Principle, Procedure, Purpose, Uses
Electron Microscope: Definition, Types, Parts, Application, Advantages, Disadvantages
Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Principle, Instrumentation, Applications
Fluorescence Microscope: Definition, Uses, Principle, Parts.
Gamma-ray (γ-ray) Spectroscopy
Gas chromatography Definition, principle, working, uses
GasPak Anaerobic System Principle, Application
Gel Filtration Chromatography Principle, Components, Steps, Types, Application
Gel Permeation Chromatography
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
Hot air oven Definition, Principle, Parts, Application, Procedure.
Incubator: Definition, Principle, Components, Types, Operating Procedure, Use.
Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy Principle, Instrumentation, Application
Inverted microscope Images and definition, principle, Uses, Parts.
Ion Exchange Chromatography
Laboratory Flask – Definition, Types, Uses
Laboratory Test Tube – Definition, Types, Uses
Laminar flow hood/cabinet Definition, Parts, Principle, Application
McIntosh and Fildes’ Anaerobic Jar Principle, Procedure
Micropipettes Components, Types, Applications, Techniques
Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE)
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy
Oil Immersion technique, objectives, Resolving Power, Used for, Types.
Paper Chromatography Principle, Types, Instrumentation, Steps
Parts of a Microscope and Their Functions
Petri dish – Definition, Structure, Types, Uses
PH Meter Definition, Principle, Parts, Types, Application, Procedure.
Phase Contrast Microscopy: definition, parts, uses, working principle.
Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)
Scanning Electron Microscope: Definition, Parts, Application, Principle, Advantages.
SDS-PAGE – Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE)
Simple Microscope: Working Principle, Uses, Parts, and their Functions.
Solid State Fermentation (SSF)
Spectrophotometer Principle, Uses, Components.
Thin Layer Chromatography Principle, Components, Procedure, Application
Tools Used in Microbiology Laboratory
Transmission Electron Microscope: Definition, Parts, Working Principle, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages
Triple Beam Balance – Parts, Procedure, Uses
Types of Centrifuge, Definition, Principle, and Applications
Types of Microscopes with their applications
Types of Spectroscopy with Definition, Principle, Steps, Uses
Ultracentrifuge Definition, Principle, Types, Uses
UV-Vis Spectroscopy Principle, Instrumentation, Applications, Advantages, and Limitation
Vortex Mixer – Definition, Principle, Parts, Uses
Working Principle of Laboratory Hot water bath with Operating Procedure.
X-Ray Crystallography
X-Ray Spectroscopy Principle, Instrumentation and Applications
Elek test Principle, Procedure, Result
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR): Principle, Methods
Hanging Drop Method Principle, Procedure, Result
Isolation of Microorganism From Air
MIC Test Strip – Quantitative assay for determining the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
Most Probable Number (MPN) Test: Principle, Procedure, Results
Nagler Reaction – Lecithinase Test
Stokes Disc Diffusion Method Principle, Procedure, Result.
Study of Aspergillus by using Temporary Mount Technique
Study of Chlamydomonas and Volvox by using Whole mount
Study of Penicillium using Temporary Mount
Study of Rhizopus by using Temporary Mount.
Temporary Wet Mount (TWM) technique for observation of Living Organisms.
Types of Blood Collection Tubes and Their uses
Widal Test Principle, Procedure, Result, Advantages, Limitation
Coagulase Test Principle, Procedure, Application, Result.
Counter Current Immunoelectrophoresis Principle, Procedure, Result.
Different Aseptic Techniques in Microbiology Laboratory
How To Use A Microscope Properly
Immunoelectrophoresis test Principle, Applications, Procedure, Results, Advantages and Disadvantages.
Isolation of Microorganisms from Soil
Method for Balancing in Laboratory – Weight or Mass Measurement
Moist Heat Sterilization Principle, Advantages, Disadvantages
Pour Plate Method Principle, Procedure, Objective, Result, Advantages
Preparation Of Temporary Cotton Plugs and Permanent Cotton Plugs
Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis Principle, Procedure, Result, Application.
Serial Dilution Method Definition, Procedure, Application
Spread‌ ‌Plate‌ ‌Method‌: Procedure, Principle, Purpose, Result.
Streak Plate Method: Patterns, Procedure, Principle
Subculturing technique for Broth Culture
Subculturing Technique In Agar Slant/Agar Plate
Blood Grouping Principle and Procedure
Catalase Test Principle, Procedure, Result and Application.
Culture medium Definition, Preparation, Classification
Dot Blot Protocol, Principle, Definition.
Eastern blot Protocol, Principle, Application
Gel Staining Procedure for PAGE
Giolitti-Cantoni Broth for Staphylococcus aureus
Laboratory Rules: Basic Rules Of A Microbiology Laboratory
Measurement Of Microorganisms – Micrometry
Membrane Filtration Method, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages, Applications.
Methylene Blue Reduction Test
Modified Kirby-Bauer Disc Diffusion Method
Northern Blotting Protocol, Principle, Application, Result
Plant Tissue Culture Definition, techniques, Media composition, types, application.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Steps, Principle, Application
Restriction Digest Protocol, Principle, result
Reverse Blood Grouping Principle, Procedure, Result
Southern Blotting Technique Principle, Procedure, Importance
Western Blot Protocol, Principle, Result.
Xanthoproteic test Principle, Procedure, Result, Application
5-Fluorocytosine (5-FC) Solution Preparation
Anesthetic (MS222) Solution Preparation
Bath Solution (Ca2+/Mg2+ Free) Preparation
Bradford Stock Solution Preparation
Calcium Chloride Stock Solution Preparation
Carbenicillin Solution Preparation
Chloroquine solution Preparation and Uses
Cresol Red Solution Preparation and Uses
Different Buffer preparation for Gel Electrophoresis
Ethidium Bromide Solution Preparation and use
Immunofluorescence Quenching Solution Preparation and Application
Mayer’s Hemalum Solution Preparation and Application
Nuclear Fast Red Solution Preparation and Application
Physiological Buffer preparation
Preparation of Crystal Violet for the Gram Stain
Preparation of Different pH Buffer
Pyronin Y (PY) Solution Preparation and Application
Sample Preparation and composition
Solution and Cell/Culture/Growth Media Preparations
SSC (Northern Blot, 20x) and SSPE (Blot, 20x, pH 7.4) Preparation and Recipe
Tris-SDS Buffer Preparation of pH 6.8 and 8.8 for SDS PAGE
Acridine Orange Staining
Albert Stain Principle, Procedure, Result
Amoeba Staining, Fixing, Techniques
Bacterial Flagella Staining by Leifson Flagella Stain Method
Bacterial Smear Preparation
Capsule Staining Procedure, Principle, Result
Cell Membrane Staining Procedure, Principle, Result
Cell Wall Staining by Dayr’s Method
Collagen Hybridizing Peptide Staining
Endospore Staining Principle, Procedure, Result
Flagella Staining Principle, Procedure, Result
Flow Cytometry Laboratory for cell viability staining using propidium iodide.
Giemsa Stain: Preparation, Procedure, Principle, Composition and Application
Gram Staining Procedure, Principle, and Results
Iron-Hematoxylin Stain Principle, Procedure, Result
Kinyoun stain (Acid Fast Cold) Method: Principle, Procedure, Result
Lactophenol Cotton Blue Staining Principle, Procedure, Result.
Negative Staining Principle, Procedure, Result
Nuclear Staining by Giemsa stain: Procedure, Principle, Result
Nuclear Staining of Filamentous Fungi
Papanicolaou Staining (Pap stain)
Parasporal Crystal Stain Principle, Procedure, Result
Simple Staining Procedure, Principle, Result
Sudan Black B Staining
Toluidine blue stain of Mast Cell.
Types of Staining Techniques
Types of Stains used in Microbiology
Vacuole Staining – Observation of Vacuoles under Microscope
Viability Staining Method For Bacteria
Wright Giemsa Stain Protocol, Principle, Result.
Wright Stain Principle, Procedure, Result
Ziehl Neelsen Stain Principle, Procedure, Result
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Questionnaires and Schedules
17 Best Microscope for Students
41 Best Biology Movies and Documentary for Students
65 Best Biology Movies and documentary on Netflix
Different Types of Birds
Most Infectious and Deadliest Diseases Caused By Bacteria
The most lethal viruses of all Time
Top 13 Lab Techniques You Must Know
Top 16 Infectious and Deadliest Diseases Caused By Bacteria
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Circulatory System of Frog
Digestive System of Frog – With Diagram
Dissection of Rat With Labeled Diagram – Rat Dissection Labeled
Sere Community – Definition, Classification
X Ray fish – Reproduction, Habitat, Diet, Anatomy
Biography of Alexander Fleming
Biography of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek – Father of Microbiology
Biography of Edward Jenner – British doctor and scientist
Biography of Lazzaro Spallanzani – Italian physiologist
Biography of Louis Pasteur – French Biologist and Chemist
Biography of Robert Hooke
Biography of Robert Koch – Founder of Modern Bacteriology
Asexual Reproduction in Plants – Definition, Methods
Bryophytes definition, classification, life cycle, characteristics, importance
Funaria Structure, Characteristics, Reproduction
Marchantia Definition, Structure, Reproduction, Classification
Monocot and Dicot Leaves Definition, Structure, Differences, and Examples
Monocot Seed Definition, Structure, Example, Characteristics
Photosynthesis definition, steps, equation, process, and diagram
Sphagnum habit, characteristics, structure, reproduction
Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2011
Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2012 (Part 1)
Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2012 (Part 2)
Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2012 (Part 3)
Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2013
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Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2014 (Part 2)
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Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2016
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Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2018
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IIT JAM Biotechnology 2020 Solved Question Paper Download
IIT JAM Biotechnology 2021 Solved Question Paper Download
12 Top Websites to Download Research Papers for Free
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