All Microbiology Notes A-Z


Abiotic Factors - Definition, Types, Examples

Acetamide utilization Test Principle, Procedure, result

Acetate Utilization Test Principle, Procedure, Results

Acetic Acid Production

Acridine Orange Staining

Active Immunity - Definition, Types, Examples

Adaptive (Acquired) Immunity

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Structure, Synthesis, Functions

Afferent vs Efferent Neuron - Differences between Afferent and Efferent Neuron

Affinity chromatography Principle, Types, Steps, Applications

Agarose Gel Electrophoresis Definition, Principle, Procedure, Applications

Agglutination Reaction Definition, Types, Applications

Agglutination test definition, Types, Uses, Advantages, Disadvantages

Agrobacterium-Mediated Gene Transfer - Mechanism, Applications, Advantages

Air Displacement Pipetting - Principle, Procedure, Applications

Air microbiology and Dispersal of Microbes 

Albert Stain Principle, Procedure, Result

Algae Bioreactor - Definition, Types, Feature, Uses

Algae: Algae Reproduction

Alkaline Peptone Water Preparation, Composition, Principle, Application.

Alkaline Phosphatase Test of Milk- Determination of Phosphatase Activity of Milk

Alternaria alternata - Habitat, Life Cycle, Morphology, Pathogenesis

Alternative Pathway of Complement System

Amebiasis by by Entamoeba histolytica

Amensalism - Definition, Types, Examples

Ames Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Amies Transport Medium Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Amino Acids Physical Properties, Structure, Classification, Functions

Amoeba Cell Labeled Structure, Characteristics, Movement, Nutrition, Reproduction, Disease, Habitat.

Amoeba Staining, Fixing, Techniques

An Overview of Bacillus cereus

Anaerobic Blood Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Anaerobic Culture Media Examples, Definition

Analytical Balance - Diagram, Principle, Parts, Types, Uses

Anatomical and Physiological Barriers of Immune System

Ancylostoma duodenale - Structure, Life Cycle, Habitat, Characteristics

Anesthetic (MS222) Solution Preparation

Animal Cell Coloring - Worksheet

Animal Cell Culture Types, Application, Advantages and disadvantages.

Animal Cell Labeled Diagram, Structure, Types, Functions

Animal Cell Labeling Worksheet

Animal Models for Autoimmune Diseases

Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2011

Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2012 (Part 1)

Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2012 (Part 2)

Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2012 (Part 3)

Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2013

Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2014 (Part 1)

Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2014 (Part 2)

Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2014 (Part 3)

Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2015

Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2016

Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2017

Answer Key of BHU PET Applied Microbiology 2018

Antibiotic Resistance: Definition, Mechanism, Example.

Antibiotics definition, Characteristics, Classification, Administration

Antibody - Structure, Types, Functions and Properties

Anticodon - Definition, Principle, Functions, Examples

Antifungal Drug - Mode of Action

Antigen - Definition, Types, Structure, Properties

Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs)

Antigen Processing and Presentation - Cytosolic Pathway and Endocytic Pathway 

Antigen-Antibody Interaction - Definition, Types, Examples, Properties

Antimicrobial Agent and Chemotherapy

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST)

Antiviral Chemotherapy

Antiviral Drug - Mode of Action

API (Analytical Profile Index) 20E Test Result, Principle, Procedure

Apoptosis Pathway- Definition, Functions, Mechanism, Examples

Apoptosis vs. Necrosis - Definition, Types, Causes

Applications of Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Aquatic Ecosystem - Definition, Types. Examples

Arabinose Operon - Definition, Structure, Mechanism 

Archaea vs Bacteria vs Eukarya - 30 Differences, Definition, Examples

Archaebacteria Definition, Types, Characteristics, Structure, Examples

Arneth Count for Neutrophils - Principle, Procedure.

Ascaris lumbricoides - Structure, Reproduction, Life Cycle, Characteristics

Asexual Reproduction in bacteria - Definition, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages

Asexual Reproduction in Plants - Definition, Methods

Ashdown’s Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Aspergillosis - Causative Agent, Symptoms, Types, Treatment

Aspergillus clavatus - Morphology, Life Cycle, Pathogenesis

Aspergillus flavus - Definition, Structure, Characteristics, Habitat

Aspergillus fumigatus - Characteristics, Structure, Pathogenesis

Aspergillus niger - Structure, Habitat, Characteristics

Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) - Definition, Principle, Application

Auramine - Rhodamine Staining: Principle, Procedure, Result, Applications

Autoclave Bag - Application, Types, Applications, Advantages

Autoclave Definition, Working Principle, Components, Operating procedure.

Autoimmunity - Definition, Types, Tolerance, Pathogenesis, Mechanisms

Automated Cell Counter - Principle, Types, and Applications


B cell or B lymphocytes - Definition, Function, Types

Bacitracin Susceptibility Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Bacterial Capsule: Definition, Functions, Composition, Types, Demonstration, and examples.

Bacterial cell wall structure and Composition.

Bacterial Conjugation - Definition, Steps, Methods

Bacterial Culture Media Classification, Ingredients, Functions and Preparation.

Bacterial Culture Technique

Bacterial Flagella Staining by Leifson Flagella Stain Method

Bacterial Flagella: Definition, Structure, Types, Functions, Rotation, Examples.

Bacterial Food Poisoning: Symptoms, Prevention, Causes & Treatment.

Bacterial Growth and Different Environmental Factors Affect Bacterial Growth

Bacterial Growth Curve and Different Phases

Bacterial Smear Preparation

Bacterial toxin: Definition, Types, Example.

Bacterial Transduction - Generalized and Specialized Transduction

Bacterial Transformation - Definition, Principle, Steps, Examples

Bacterial Transformation Protocol

Bacteriological Examination of Waters by Using Membrane Filtration Method

Bacteriophages - Definition, Morphology, Life cycle, Significance

Baird Parker Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Baltimore classification System of Viruses

Basidiomycetes Life cycle, Characteristics, Significance, Mycelium

Basophil - Definition, Structure, Functions

Bath Solution (Ca2+/Mg2+ Free) Preparation

BCYE Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Bead Homogenizer | Bead Mill Homogenizers - Principle, Uses

Beaker - Definition, Types, Features, and Applications

Beer Production

Bench Top Centrifuge - Principle, Types, Parts, Uses

Benedict’s Test Principle, Reagent Preparation, Procedure, Result, Limitation

Best and Top Books for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

Best and Top Books for Microbial Genetics and Molecular Biology

Best Book for BHU PET Applied Microbiology

Best books for CSIR NET Life Science

Best Books for Industrial and Food Microbiology

Best Books for Medical Microbiology and Immunology

Best Books For Microbial Metabolism

Best Books for Microbiology B.Sc 2nd Semester and Biochemistry

Best Books for Soil and Environmental Microbiology

Best Microbiology Books For B.Sc 1st Year Students and Bacteriology

Beta (β) Lactamase Test Principle, Procedure, Results

BHU PET Applied microbiology Question Papers of Previous Years.

BHU PET Applied Microbiology Syllabus and Books

Bial test for pentoses Principle, Objective, Procedure, Result

Bile Esculin Test Principle, Procedure, Result, and application.

Bile Solubility Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Binary fission Definition, Types, Steps, Examples

Binomial Nomenclature Definition, Rules, Examples, Advantages, Disadvantages

Bioaccumulation - Definition, Mechanisms, Applications

Bioaerosol - Definition, Types, Collection, Transmission

Biochemical Test of Bacillus anthracis

Biochemical Test of Bacillus cereus

Biochemical Test of Hafnia alvei

Biochemical Test of Providencia stuartii

Biochemical Test of Salmonella Typhi

Biography of Alexander Fleming

Biography of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek - Father of Microbiology

Biography of Edward Jenner - British doctor and scientist

Biography of Lazzaro Spallanzani - Italian physiologist

Biography of Louis Pasteur - French Biologist and Chemist

Biography of Robert Hooke

Biography of Robert Koch - Founder of Modern Bacteriology

Bioinformatics - Definition, Introduction, Purpose, Applications

Bioinformatics Databases, Software, and Tools

Biological Consequences of Complement Activation

Biological Magnification -Definition, Causes, Effects

Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) Definition, Importance, Measurement

Bioprocess Engineering Definition, Types, Uses

Bioreactor Types, Design, Parts, Applications, Limitations

Bioremediation - Definition, Types, Application

Biosafety Cabinet: Definition, Classification (Class I, II, III), Working Mechanism, Application, Features.

Biosafety Guidelines: Biosafety guidelines and regulations

Biosafety levels With their Primary and Secondary Barriers.

Biotic Factors - Definition, Types, Examples

Bird Seed Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation

Bismuth Sulphite Agar (BSA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Biuret Test For Protein Principle, Procedure, Result, Application.

BLAST - Definition, Types, Characteristics, Outputs, Applications

Blastomyces dermatitidis - Morphology, Transmission, Treatment

Blood Agar Definition, Preparation, Composition, Application, and limitation.

Blood Cells: Definition, Types, Structure and Functions

Blood Collection Tubes - Definition, Significance of Color Coding

Blood Cross Matching - Principle, Procedure, Result.

Blood Grouping Principle and Procedure

Blotting Technique - Definition, Types, Application

BOD Incubator: Definition, Principle, Components, Procedure, Application.

BOD Test - Biological Oxygen Demand Test

Body Lines of Defense - Types, Examples

Botulism Food Poisoning

Bradford Stock Solution Preparation

Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) Agar- Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Branches of Microbiology

Brief History And Developments In Industrial Microbiology

Bright Field Microscope: Definition, Parts, Working Principle, Application.

Brilliant Green Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Brucella Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Bryophytes definition, classification, life cycle, characteristics, importance

BSc Nursing Syllabus of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Year

Budding Definition, Process, Advantages, Disadvantages

Bunsen Burner - Definition, Principle, Parts, Functions

Burkholderia Cepacia Agar Base Preparation, Composition, Principle

Butyrate Disk Test Principle, Procedure, Result


Calcium Chloride Stock Solution Preparation

Calcofluor White Staining - Principle, Procedure, Results, Applications

Calcutta University MSc Microbiology Old Question Papers Download - Cu Old Question paper

CAMP Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Campylobacter Blood Agar (CVA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Cancer Immunotherapy 

Candida albicans - Morphology, Life Cycle, Pathogenesis, Treatment

Candida glabrata - Morphology, Pathogenesis, Treatment, Prevention

Candida parapsilosis - Morphology, Pathogenesis, Transmission, Treatment

Candida tropicalis - Morphology, Pathogenesis, Transmisssion, Treatment

Candidiasis - Definition, Causative Agent, Types, Transmission

Candidiasis - Types, Causative Agent, Treatment, Prevention, Symptoms

Capillary Electrophoresis - Definition, Principle, Types and Application

Capsule Staining Procedure, Principle, Result

Carbenicillin Solution Preparation

Carbohydrate Fermentation Test - Sugar Fermentation Test

Carbohydrates Definition, Examples, Structure, Types, and Functions

Carbon cycle - Definition, Steps, Importance, Examples

Career In Microbiology and Its Importance

Careers of Microbiologist: Scope, Salary, Jobs, Courses, Eligibility.

Carl Woese’s Classification - Three Domain Classification

Cary Blair Transport Medium Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Cas9 Protein - Structure, Types, Function

Casein Hydrolysis Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Catalase Test Principle, Procedure, Result and Application.

cDNA cloning - Definition, Principle, Steps 

cDNA library - Definition, Principle, Construction, Uses

cDNA Synthesis - Principle, Protocol 

Cell Coat - Definition, Functions, Structure

Cell Cycle - Definition, Phases, Regulation

Cell Disruption Definition, Methods, Application

Cell Fusion - Definition, Types, Significance

Cell Growth - Definition, Types, Mechanisms

Cell Mediated Immune Response 

Cell membrane (Plasma Membrane) structures and functions

Cell Membrane (Plasma Membrane) Worksheet

Cell Membrane Staining Procedure, Principle, Result

Cell Organelles Structure and their Functions

Cell proliferation - Definition, Types, differentiation, assay, diseases

Cell Signaling - Definition, Types, Functions

Cell Structure and Functions - Cell Organelles

Cell Wall Staining by Dayr's Method

Cell Wall Structure of Archaebacteria 

Cells of Immune System - Types and Examples

Cellular Structure of Algae with diagram

Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis - Definition, Principle, Operating Procedure, Uses

Central Dogma - Definition, Replication, Transcription, Translation

Centrifugal Separators - Working Principle, Parts, Types, Uses

Centrifugation of blood - Blood Separation

Centrifuge - Definition, Principle, Parts, Types

Centrifuge Blood Sample - Purpose, Steps, Techniques

Centrifuge tube - Definition, Types, Applications, Sizes

Centrioles and Basal Bodies - Definition, Structure, Functions

Centrosome - Definition, Structure, Functions, Diagram

Cetrimide Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Cetrimide Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Results

Channel Protein - Definition, Structure, Function, Example

Characteristic of Genetic Code

Characters of Algae | General Characters of Algae

Charcoal Selective Medium Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Chemical Method of Sterilization - Types, Mode of Action, Application, Examples.

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) - Definition, Measurement, Uses

Chemosynthetic Bacteria Examples, Definition, Pathways, and Processes

Chlamydia and Chlamydophila

Chloroplasts Definition, Characteristics, Structure, Location, Functions, and Diagram

Chloroquine solution Preparation and Uses

Chocolate Agar Media Principle, Composition, Preparation, Result

CHROMagar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Chromatography Principle, Types, Applications

Chromoblastomycosis (Chromomycosis) - Morphology, Pathogenesis, Transmission, Treatment

Chromosome Abnormalities Types, Mechanism, Detection

Chromosome Definition, Function, Structure, Types

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) 

Chytridiomycota Overview

Cilia - Definition, Structure, Types, Function

Cilia and Flagella Definition, Structure, Function

Circulatory System of Frog

Citric Acid Production

Classical Pathway of Complement Activation

Classification of Bacteria

Classification of Chromatography

Classification of Culture Media

Classification of Fungi: Gymnomycota, Mastigomycota, Amastigomycota.

Classification of Virus

CLED Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Climax Community - Definition, Characteristics, Theories

Cloning Vectors - Definition, Types, Features, Applications

Clostridium botulinum - Overview

Clostridium perfringens - Overview

Clostridium perfringens Food Poisoning

Clostridium tetani - Overview

Coagulase Test Principle, Procedure, Application, Result.

Coccidioidomycosis - Definition, Life Cycle, Pathogenesis

COD Test - Test for Chemical Oxygen Demand In Wastewater

Cold-blooded vs Warm-blooded animals

Coliform Bacteria - Definition, Classification, Examples

Coliforms Presence/Absence (PA) Test

Collagen Hybridizing Peptide Staining

Colony Counter - Definition, Types, Parts, Principle

Colony Morphology of Bacteria and Examples

Colorimeter - Working Principle, Definition, Parts, Uses

Coltivirus - Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Columbia CNA Agar - Composition, Preparation, Uses, and Results

Column Chromatography Procedure, Instruments, Application, Advantages

Commensalism - Definition, Types, Example

Common Fungal Culture Media and Their Uses

Common Glassware used in A Microbiology Laboratory

Comparison Between Acid Fast and Non Acid Fast Bacteria

Comparison Between Gram Stain and Acid Fast

Comparison Between Kinyoun Stain vs Ziehl neelsen stain

Competition Interaction - Definition and Types with Examples

Complement System Definition, Activation, Effects, Regulation

Composting - Methods, Types, Factors, Importance

Compound Microscope Principle, Parts, Diagram Definition, Application

Confocal Microscope Principle, Uses, Parts, Advantages, and Disadvantages.

Conical Flask (Erlenmeyer flask) -  Diagram, Definition, Types, Uses

Consumers - Definition, Types, Examples

Contamination of Foods

Contamination of Foods

Contamination, Preservation, and Spoilage of Cereals and Cereal Products

Contamination, Preservation, and Spoilage of Eggs 

Continuous Culture Definition, Advantage, Application, Systems

Contribution of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Contribution of Louis Pasteur in Microbiology.

Contribution of Microbiologist: Ignaz Semmelweis, Hans Christian Gram, Charles Lavaran, Fanny Hesse, Marjory Stephenson, Kiyoshi Shiga, Emil von Behring.

Contribution of Microbiologist: Selman Waksman, Julius Wagner-Jauregg, Charles Nicolle, Gerhard Domagk, Howard Florey, Ernst Chain, Max Theiler.

Contribution of Microbiologists: Joseph Lister, Alexander Fleming, Edward Jenner, Lazzaro Spallanzani, Martinus Beijerinck.

Contribution of Paul Ehrlich and John Snow In Microbiology

Contribution of Robert Koch and Koch’s Postulates

Coronavirus - Definition, Structure, Genome, Replication

Counter Current Immunoelectrophoresis Principle, Procedure, Result.

COVID-19: Herd immunity threshold could be lower, study finds

Cresol Red Solution Preparation and Uses

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus - An Overview

CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Editing - Definition, Mechanism, Application

Cryptococcus neoformans - Structure, Infection, Habitat

CSIR NET 2008 Life Science Answer Key

CSIR NET 2009 Life Science Answer Key

CSIR NET 2010 Life Science Answer Key

CSIR NET 2011 Life Science Answer Key with Question Paper.

CSIR NET 2012 Life Science Answer Key with Question Paper.

CSIR NET 2013 Life Science Answer Key with Question Paper.

CSIR NET 2014 Life Science Answer Key with Question Paper.

CSIR NET Life Science Answer Key of 2015

CSIR NET Life Science Answer Key of 2016

CSIR NET Life Science Answer Key of 2017

CSIR NET Life Science Answer Key of 2018

CSIR NET Life Science Answer Key of 2019

CSIR NET Life Science Question Papers With Answer Key from 208 to 2019.

CSIR NET Life Science Syllabus

Cultivation of Anaerobic Bacteria

Cultivation of bacteria

Culture Media Examples, Components and Primary Purpose

Culture Media Preparation, Maintenance and Preservation

Culture medium Definition, Preparation, Classification

Cultures Production for Food Fermentations

Cyclic AMP pathway (Cyclic adenosine monophosphate)

Cysticercosis - Definition, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis

Cystine Glucose Blood Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Cystine Tryptic Agar Composition, Preparation, Principle, Uses

Cytokinesis - Definition and Process In animal and Plant Cells

Cytoplasm Functions, Structure, Definition, and Diagram

Cytoplasmic Matrix - Definition, Structure, Properties

Cytoskeleton - Definition, Structure, Functions 

Cytoskeleton Components Worksheet

Cytotoxic T cells

Czapek’s Agar (CZA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses


Darkfield Microscope: Definition, Principle, Application.

Decanter centrifuge - Principle, Types, Parts, Uses

Decarboxylase Broth Protocol

Decarboxylase Test Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses

Decomposers - Definition, Mechanisms, Types, Example

Degradation of Hydrocarbons (oil spills)

Degradation of Pesticides - Types, Mechanisms

Dendritic cell - Definition, Location, Structure, Types, Functions

Dengue and Dengue Virus - Overview

Denitrification - Definition, Process, Factors

Density Gradient Centrifugation Principle, Protocol, Uses

Deoxycholate Citrate Agar (DCA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Deoxyribonuclease (DNase) Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Desert Ecosystem - Definition, Types, Importance

Detect the presence of specific antibody and quantitate the amount of antibody in patient’s serum

Dexamethasone: Finally good news for COVID-19 Patients

Dexamethasone: Mechanism, Application, Side effects.

Diagnostic Techniques of Viruses - Molecular and Immunological Techniques

Diauxic growth Curve, Definition, Occurrence.What is diauxic growth?Diauxic growth Curve, Definition, Occurrence.

Difference Between Active Transport and Passive Transport - Active vs Passive Transport

Difference between Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration - Aerobic vs Anaerobic Respiration

Difference Between Analytical Balance and Triple Beam Balance

Difference between Antigen and Antibody

Difference Between Asexual and Sexual Reproduction

Difference between Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)

Difference between Biomagnification and Bioaccumulation

Difference Between Biotic and Abiotic Factors - Biotic vs Abiotic Factors

Difference Between Bone and Cartilage - Bone vs Cartilage

Difference Between Breathing and Respiration - Breathing vs Respiration

Difference Between Cation and Anion - Cation vs Anion

Difference Between cDNA and Genomic DNA - cDNA vs genomic DNA

Difference between celsius and fahrenheit - Celsius Vs Fahrenheit Scale

Difference between Chromosome and Chromatid - Chromosome vs Chromatid

Difference between cilia and flagella

Difference between Cilia and Microvilli

Difference Between Cladogram and Phylogenetic tree

Difference Between Classical, Alternative and Lectin Pathway

Difference Between Communicable and non-communicable diseases

Difference Between Compound Microscope and Simple Microscope.

Difference Between Diploid and Haploid - Diploid vs Haploid

Difference between endocytosis and exocytosis (endocytosis vs exocytosis)

Difference between enzymes and hormones - enzymes vs hormones

Difference between Epithelial tissue and Connective tissue - Epithelial tissue vs Connective tissue

Difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic dna replication

Difference between Exocrine and Endocrine Glands - Exocrine vs Endocrine Glands

Difference between exotoxins and endotoxins - exotoxins vs endotoxins

Difference between genomic and cdna library

Difference between Gram-Positive and Negative Bacteria - Gram-Negative vs. Gram-Po Bacteria

Difference Between Habitat and Niche - Habitat vs Niche

Difference between Heterochromatin and Euchromatin - Heterochromatin vs Euchromatin

Difference between hot air oven and autoclave

Difference Between Hypertonic vs Hypotonic

Difference between Incomplete dominance and Co-dominance - Incomplete dominance vs Co-dominance

Difference Between Independent and Dependent variables

Difference Between Inhalation and Exhalation - Inhalation vs Exhalation

Difference between MHC Class I and MHC Class II - MHC Class I vs MHC Class II

Difference between Natural and artificial selection - Natural vs artificial selection

Difference Between Northern, Southern and Western Blotting

Difference between O antigen and H antigen - O vs H antigen

Difference between One-step RT-qPCR and Two-step RT-qPCR

Difference Between Oviparous and Viviparous - Oviparous vs Viviparous

Difference between Phytoplankton and Zooplankton

Difference Between Pinocytosis and Receptor Mediated Endocytosis

Difference between Plant cell and Animal cell - Plant cell vs Animal cell

Difference Between Pollination and Fertilization - Pollination vs Fertilization

Difference Between Primary and Secondary Metabolites

Difference between Primary and Secondary Succession

Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Difference Between Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic Cell - Prokaryotic cells vs Eukaryotic Cells

Difference between Quantitative and Qualitative Data - Quantitative vs Qualitative Data

Difference Between RNA Primer and DNA Primer - RNA Primer vs DNA Primer

Difference between Saturated and Unsaturated fatty acids

Difference Between Simple Diffusion and Facilitated Diffusion - Simple diffusion vs facilitated diffusion

Difference between static quenching and dynamic quenching

Difference between Vascular and Non-vascular plants - Vascular vs Non-vascular plants

Difference Between Virus and Viroids

Difference Between Xylem and Phloem - Xylem vs Phloem

Differences Between Absorption and Adsorption

Differences Between Actin and Myosin - Actin vs Myosin

Differences between Active Immunity and Passive Immunity

Differences Between Acute disease and Chronic Disease

Differences Between Agglutination and Precipitation

Differences Between Amphibians and Reptiles - Amphibians vs Reptiles

Differences between Angiosperm and Gymnosperm - Angiosperm vs Gymnosperm

Differences between Anthrax bacilli and Anthracoid bacilli

Differences Between Antigenic Shift and Antigenic Drift

Differences between Arteries and Veins - Arteries vs Veins

Differences Between Autotroph and Heterotroph

Differences between Autotroph and Heterotroph - Autotroph vs Heterotroph

Differences between B Cells and T Cells - B Cells vs T Cells

Differences Between Bacteria and Fungi - Bacteria vs Fungi

Differences between Binary fission and multiple fission

Differences between Cytokines and Chemokines

Differences between Diarrhea and Dysentery - Diarrhea vs Dysentery

Differences between DNA and RNA - DNA vs RNA

Differences between DNA Replication and Transcription

Differences Between Genomics and Proteomics

Differences between Humoral Immunity and Cell mediated Immunity

Differences between Invertebrates and Vertebrates

Differences between Meningitis and Encephalitis

Differences Between Microfilaments and Microtubules - Microfilaments vs. Microtubules

Differences Between Mitochondria and Chloroplast - Mitochondria vs Chloroplasts

Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis - Mitosis vs Meiosis

Differences Between Monohybrid cross vs Dihybrid cross

Differences between Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Differences Between Nitrification and Denitrification

Differences Between Northern and Southern blotting - Northern blotting vs Southern blotting

Differences between Phenotype and Genotype - Phenotype vs Genotype

Differences between Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum

Differences between Pneumococcus and Viridans streptococci

Differences between Primary and Secondary Succession - Primary vs Secondary Succession

Differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Differences between RBC and WBC - RBC vs WBC

Differences Between Sensitivity, Specificity, False positive, False negative

Differences between Serum and Plasma - Serum vs Plasma

Differences between Staphylococcus and Streptococcus

Differences Between Taenia Solium and Fasciola Hepatica

Differences between Transcription and Translation - Transcription vs Translation

Differences Between Transduction and Transfection - Transduction vs Transfection

Differences Between Type I Error and Type II Error

Differences Between Viroids and Prions

Differences between Voluntary and Involuntary Muscles - Voluntary vs Involuntary Muscles

Differences between Voluntary muscles and Involuntary muscles - Voluntary vs Involuntary Muscles

Differences between Yeasts and Molds - Yeasts vs Molds

Different Aseptic Techniques in Microbiology Laboratory

Different Between DNA-A form, DNA-B form, DNA-Z form

Different Buffer preparation for Gel Electrophoresis

Different Laboratory Instruments for Measuring Volumes

Different Plasma Membrane Models

Different Programming Language for Bioinformatics

Different Types of Birds

Different Types of Microscopes with Definitions, Principle, Uses, Labeled Diagrams

Differential Centrifugation Principle, Protocol, Uses

Digestive System of Frog - With Diagram

Digital Microscope Principle, Parts, Application, Advantages

Dihybrid Cross Definition, Steps, Process, and Examples

Diphtheroids - Definition, Classification, Structure, Pathogenesis, Transmission

Direct Microscopic Count (DMC) Advantage, Disadvantage.

Dissecting Microscope (Stereo Microscope) Definition, Uses, Parts, Principle.

Dissecting microscope (Stereo microscope) Worksheet

Dissection of Rat With Labeled Diagram - Rat Dissection Labeled

Distribution Of Microorganisms In Aquatic Environment

DNA - Definition, Structure, Properties, Types, Functions

DNA Analyzer - Principle, Parts, Operating, Applications

DNA Fingerprinting - Definition, Steps, Methods, Applications

DNA Ladders - Definition, Types, Uses

DNA Methylation - Definition, Mechanisms, Functions

DNA Microarray Principle, Types and Steps involved in cDNA microarrays

DNA Polymerase - Definition, Mechanism, Structure, Types

DNA Recombination - Definition, Mechanisms, Types

DNA Repair Mechanisms and Types

DNA Replication Mechanism, Definition, Requirements, Steps

DNA Transcription (RNA Synthesis) - Definition, Diagram, Steps, Inhibitors, Importance

Dot Blot Protocol, Principle, Definition.

Double Beam Balance - Principle, Procedure, Purpose, Uses

Dounce Homogenizer - Principle, Types, Procedure, Parts, Uses

Downstream Processing Steps


Extrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis - Definition, Mechanism, Functions, Regulation

Eastern blot - Protocol, Principle, Application

Ebola Virus - Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Ecological Pyramids - Definition, Types, Importance

Economic Importance of Algae: Food Industry, Chemical Industry, Agriculture, Medicine

Economic Importance of Fungi In Medicine, Industry, Agriculture, and Food.

Economic Importance of Protozoa and Mode of Infection

Effect of antibiotics on the cell wall

Egg Yolk Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Electron Microscope: Definition, Types, Parts, Application, Advantages, Disadvantages

Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Principle, Instrumentation, Applications

Electron Transport Chain Definition, Steps and ATP synthase.

Elek test Principle, Procedure, Result

ELISA Plate Reader - Microplate Reader or Assay Reader

ELISA test Microbiology Notes: Procedure, Principle, Types, and Application.

ELISA vs Western Blot - Differences

EMB Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Embryological Evolution

Endemic, Epidemic, and Pandemic Definition In Microbiology.

Endo Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Endocytosis definition, types and Steps.

Endonuclease vs Exonuclease - Definition, 22 Differences, Examples

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - Definition, Structure, Functions and Diagram

Endospore Definition, Formation, Germination, Structure, Resistance

Endospore Staining Principle, Procedure, Result

Endotoxin Definition, Examples, Structure, Virulence Mechanism

Energy Flow in Ecosystem

Enhancer RNAs - Definition, Biogenesis, Functions

Entamoeba Histolytica Life Cycle, Transmission, Disease, Diagnosis, Treatment

Entner–Doudoroff pathway: definition, Steps.

Enzyme Immobilization - Definition, Methods, Advantages, Disadvantages

Enzymes (amylase, protease, lipase) Production

Eosinophil - Definition, Functions, Features, Structure

Epidermophyton floccosum

Epistasis Definition, Types, Examples

Epithelial Tissue Definition, Characteristics, Types, and Functions

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) or Human Herpesvirus 4 - Structure, Genome, Replication

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR): Principle, Methods

Escherichia coli(E. coli) morphology, arrangement, Cultural Characteristics, Diagnosis

Esculin Hydrolysis test Principle, Procedure, Result

Ethanol Production

Ethidium Bromide Solution Preparation and use

Eukaryotic DNA Replication - Definition, Steps, Singnification

Eukaryotic Transcription

Exocytosis Definition, Types, Steps, Examples

Exon - Definition, Types, Structure, Functions

Experiments on DNA Structure

Expression of MHC Molecules

Extremophiles - Definition, Classification, Examples

Eye and Ear Microbiome - Normal Flora of Eye & Ear

Eyespot apparatus Definition, Function, Types, Structure, Proteins


Facilitated Diffusion Definition, Principle, Examples

Factor affecting bacterial growth

Factors Affecting Fermentation Characteristics of Starter Cultures 

Factors affecting the growth of microorganisms in food

Factors Affecting The Growth Of Microorganisms In Foods

Factors Of Ecosystem - Definition, Types

Fasciola hepatica - Definition, Structure, Reproducation, Life Cycle

Fascioliasis: Causative agent, Life cycle, Symptoms, Treatment.

FASTA - Definition, Programs, Working, Steps, Applications

Fate of Pyruvate: Acetyl CoA, Lactate, Alcohol Formation.

Fates of Pyruvate

Feeder Pathways for Glycolysis

Fehling's Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Fermentation Definition, Types, Principle, Products, Stages, Limitations

Fermentation Foods - Bread

Fermentation Foods - Malt Beverages

Fermentation Foods - Vinegar

Fermentation Foods - Wines

Fermentation Media - Media Used For The Growth of Microorganisms in Industries

Fertilization - Definition, Types, Process

Filtration - Definition, Mechanisms, Types, Examples, Application

Filtration Sterilization Types, Mechanism, Uses

Fimbriae and pili Definition, Structure, Types, Functions, Differences.

Flagella Staining Principle, Procedure, Result

Flagellar Movement Mechanisms and Chemotaxis.

Flora vs Fauna - Differences between Flora and Fauna

Flow Cytometry - Types, Purpose, Reagents, Examples, Application

Flow Cytometry Laboratory for cell viability staining using propidium iodide.

Flow cytometry Principle, Process, Uses

Fluid Mosaic Model of Plasma Membrane

Fluorescence Microscope: Definition, Uses, Principle, Parts.

Fluorescence Spectrophotometry - Definition, Principle, Parts, Advantages, Uses

Food Chain - Definition, Types, Parts, Examples

Food Microflora - Molds

Food Poisoning by Bacillus cereus - Foodborne Toxins

Food Preservation by chemicals - Food Additives

Food Preservation by Drying

Food Preservation by Irradiation

Food Preservation By Low Temperatures

Food Preservation by Using High Temperatures

Food Spoilage General Principles - Chemical Changes Caused by Microorganisms

Food Web - Definition, Types, Examples

Foodborne Giardiasis - Definition, Pathogenesis, Contamination

Foodborne Microorganism - Bacteria

Foodborne Microorganism - Yeasts

Foodborne Viruses - Definition, Examples, Detection, Prevention

Forest Ecosystem - Definition, Types, Functions

Fragmentation Reproduction Definition, Examples, Advantages, Disadvantages

Frederick Griffith Experiment: Bacterial transformation

Fructose Metabolism Pathway - Fructolysis

Funaria Structure, Characteristics, Reproduction

Fungi Characteristics, Occurrence, Cell Structure, Nutrition, Thallus Organisation, Mycelium.

Fungi Definition, Characteristics, Morphology, Importance, Thallus Organization.

Fungi: Types of Fungi and Their Reproduction.

Fusarium spp - Definition, Structure, Pathogenesis


gab Operon - Definition, Structure, Regulation

Galactose (Gal) Operon - Structure, Regulation

Gametogenesis - Definition, Steps

Gamma-ray (γ-ray) Spectroscopy

Gas chromatography Definition, principle, working, uses

GasPak Anaerobic System Principle, Application

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Gel Filtration Chromatography Principle, Components, Steps, Types, Application

Gel Permeation Chromatography

Gel Staining Procedure for PAGE

Gelatin Hydrolysis Test Purpose, Principle, Procedure, Result.

Gene Cloning - Steps, Definition, Applications

Gene Expression - Definition, Mechanism, Importance

Gene Expression Profiling - Definition, Uses, Limitations

Gene Mapping - Definition, Types, Applications

Gene Prediction - Definition, Methods, Importance

General Protocol for Western Blotting

Genetic Code - Definition, Characteristics, Wobble Hypothesis

Gerhardt's test Principle, Procedure, Result

Giardia duodenalis (Giardia lamblia or Giardia intestinalis)

Giardiasis definition, treatment, symptoms, diagnosis, prevention.

Gibbs Free Energy

Giemsa Stain: Preparation, Procedure, Principle, Composition and Application

Giolitti-Cantoni Broth for Staphylococcus aureus

Glandular Epithelium functions, definition, structure, examples

Glorious History of Microbiology

Gluconeogenesis Pathway: Definition, Steps, Substrates, Importance, Regulation.

Gluconic Acid Production

Glucose Tolerance Test - Principle, Procedure, Types, Applications

Glycocalyx Definition, Composition, Types, Functions.

Glycolysis Pathway: Definition, Steps

Golgi Apparatus Definition, Structure, Functions, and Diagram

Gram Staining Procedure, Principle, and Results

Gram-Sure (L-Alanine-7-amido-4-methylcourmarin) Test 

Grassland Ecosystem - Definition, Types, Components

Grocott-Gomori’s Methenamine Silver Staining - Principle, Procedure, Applications

Growth at 42 Test - Growth of Non Fermentative Bacteria at 42°C


Haemagglutination Test - Principle, Procedure, Result, Material

Hanging Drop Method (Motility test) Principle, and Procedure, Result, Uses

Hanta Virus - Definition, Structure, Genome, Replication

Heart Infusion Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Heat and Acetic Acid Test for Proteinuria: Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Heat Coagulation Test of Proteins - Principles, Procedure, Result

Hektoen Enteric Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Hemagglutination Inhibition Test

Hematocrit Centrifuge - Definition, Principle, Parts, Uses

Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) Staining - Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Hemocytometer and Haemocytometry

Hepatitis A Virus - Structure, Replication, Pathogenesis, Genome, Transmission

Hepatitis B Virus - Structure, Replication, Pathogenesis, Genome, Transmission

Hepatitis C virus - Structure, Replications, Pathogenesis, Genome Structure

Hepatitis D Virus - Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis,

Hepatitis E Virus - Structure, Genome, Transmission, Replication, Diagnosis, Treatment

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)

Hershey–Chase experiment On DNA

Heterogeneous Nuclear RNA (hnRNA)

High Pressure Homogenizer - Principle, Types, Parts, Uses

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

Hippurate Hydrolysis Test Principle, Procedure, Result

History and Scope of Microbiology

History of the Microscope

Homogenizer - Principle, Parts, Types, Procedure, Uses

Homology Modeling - Definition, Steps, Diagram, Applications

Hopkins Cole test (Adamkiewicz–Hopkins) Principle, Procedure, Result

Host Pathogen Interaction

Host pathogen Interaction and Its Importance.

Host-Parasite Interactions - Definition, Types, Mechanism

Hot air oven Definition, Principle, Uses, Parts, Application, Procedure.

How  L-arabinose operon different from other operons?

How are samples prepared for a transmission electron microscope?

How Are Vaccines Made?

How is plant cell cytokinesis different from animal cell cytokinesis?

How to balance a centrifuge? - Centrifuge Balancing

How to construct a Phylogenetic tree?

How to Use a Compound Microscope

How to Use a Micropipette?

How To Use A Microscope Properly

Human Astrovirus- An Overview

Human Cytomegalovirus - Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Human Female Reproductive System Organs, Structure, Functions

Human Male Reproductive System Organs, Structure, Functions

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) - Definition, Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis, Treatment

Humoral Immune Response - Definition, Mechanism

Hyaline Casts in Urine: Types, Morphology, Clinical Significance

Hybridization Probes definition, uses, Preparation, Types.

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Hypersensitivity - Definition, Types, Mechanisms

Hypersensitivity Type I, II, III and IV- Summary in table form

Hypotonic Solution Definition, Examples


Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis - Definition, Process

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Immunity - Definition, Types

Immunodeficiencies - Definition, Types, Animal models(Nude and SCID mice)

Immunodiffusion reaction 

Immunoelectrophoresis test Principle, Applications, Procedure, Results, Advantages and Disadvantages.

Immunofluorescence Quenching Solution Preparation and Application

Immunological Tolerance - Definition, Mechanism, Types

Immunotherapy For Tumors

IMViC test procedure, Purpose, Result, and Organism List.

In Silico drug designing and role of bioinformatics

Incinerator - Definition, Principle, Types, Applications

Inclusion bodies Definition, Classification, Examples

Incubator: Definition, Principle, Components, Types, Operating Procedure, Use.

Indole test - Principle, Procedure, Uses.

Industrial centrifuge - Definition, Parts, Types, Uses

Influenza A Virus - Structure, Genome, Replication, Treatment, Prevention

Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy Principle, Instrumentation, Application

Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis (Translation)

Innate Immunity - Definition, Types, Mechanism

Innate Immunity vs. Acquired Immunity (Adaptive immunity)

Interactions In communities - Types, Definition, Examples

Intermediate Filaments - Definition, Structure, Function 

Introduction of Microbiology and Microbe

Intron - Definition, Structure, Functions

Introns vs Exons - Difference, Definition, Functions, Structure

Inverted Microscope - Principle, Parts, Definition, Uses

Inverted Microscope Worksheet

Iodine Test - Iodine test for starch Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Ion Exchange Chromatography

Iron and Manganese Cycles - Steps, Importance

Iron-Hematoxylin Stain Principle, Procedure, Result

Isolation of Microorganism From Air

Isolation of Microorganisms from Soil

Isomerism Definition, Types, Examples, Structures


Japanese Encephalitis (JE) Virus


Kingdom Animalia - Different Phylum, Classification, Characteristics

Kingdom Monera Classification, Characteristics, Microscopy Methods

Kinyoun stain (Acid Fast Cold) Method: Principle, Procedure, Result

Kirby Bauer Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Test Protocol

Kligler’s Iron Agar Test Principle, Procedure, Result

KOH Test (Potassium hydroxide test) Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses

Krebs Cycle Definition, Steps, Products, Regulation.


L-form bacteria Definition, Size and shape, Culturing , Applications

L-Glutamic Acid Production

Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections

Laboratory Flask - Definition, Types, Uses

Laboratory Hot Plate -  Definition, Principle, Parts, Uses

Laboratory Refrigerators and Freezers - Principle, Parts, Applications

Laboratory Rules: Basic Rules Of A Microbiology Laboratory

Laboratory Test Tube - Definition, Types, Uses

Laboratory Water bath Principle, Types, Parts, Operating Procedure, Uses

Lac Operon - Definition, Structure, Mechanisms

Lactic Acid Production

Lactic Acid Starter Culture

Lactobacilli MRS Broth and Agar Composition, Preparation, Principle

Lactobacillus MRS Broth Test Principle, Procedure, and Results

Lactophenol Cotton Blue (LPCB) Mounts

Lactophenol Cotton Blue Staining Principle, Procedure, Result.

Laminar flow hood/cabinet Definition, Parts, Principle, Application

Lassa Virus - An Overview

Latex agglutination test - Procedure, Principle, Inhibition, Limitation, Uses.

Lectin Pathway of the Complement System

Leishmaniasis Life cycle, Treatment, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention, Types, Distribution.

Lentiviral Transfection Protocol

Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) Test Principle, Procedure, Results

Levels of Ecological Organization - Definition, Examples

Levinthal’s Medium Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Life cycle of Algae: Haplontic, Diplontic, Diplohaplontic, and Triphasic.

Life Cycle of Fasciola Hepatica

Light Microscope Labeled Diagram, Definition, Principle, Types, Parts, Applications

Lineweaver–Burk Plot

Lipase Test Principle, Procedure, results

Lipid Hydrolysis Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Lipids Definition, Structure, Properties, Types, Examples, and Functions

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Structure, Functions

Liquid Waste Management

List of Top 10 Mini Centrifuge

List of Top Biotechnology Techniques

Litmus Milk Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Loeffler Medium Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) Media Composition, Preparation, Uses

Lymphatic filariasis: Wuchereria bancrofti

Lysine decarboxylase test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Lysine Iron Agar (LIA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Lysine Iron Agar (LIA) Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Lysogeny broth (LB) Preparation

Lysosome Definition, Structure, Functions, Types

Lysosomes Definition, Structure, Formation, Functions, Types and Diagram


MacConkey Agar Composition, Uses, Colony Characteristics

Macrophage - Definition, Structure, Mechanism, Functions

Magnetic Stirrer - Definition, Principle, Types, Parts, Uses

Major Histocompatibility Complex II Structure and Functions

Malonate Test Principle, Procedure, Results

Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA)

Marchantia Definition, Structure, Reproduction, Classification

Martin Lewis Agar Composition, Preparation, Principle, Uses

Masson’s Trichrome Staining - Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Mast cell - Definition, Structure, Functions

Mayer's Hemalum Solution Preparation and Application

McIntosh and Fildes’ Anaerobic Jar Principle, Procedure

Measles Virus - Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Measurement of Bacterial Growth

Measurement Of Microorganisms - Micrometry

Mechanisms of Protein Synthesis Regulation in Eukaryotes Cells

Mechanisms of Protein Synthesis Regulation in Prokaryotic Cells

Medical Significance of Gram-Negative Cocci and Coccobacilli

Meiosis - Definition, Types, Steps

Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) - Principle, Types, Process, Uses

Membrane Carbohydrate Types, Structure, and Function

Membrane Filtration Method, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages, Applications.

Membrane Lipids - Definition, Structure, Formation, Functions

Membrane Proteins - Definition, Types, Functions

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells - Definition, Structure, Location, and Function

Mesophyll cells Definition, Location, Structure, Function, Microscopy

Mesosomes Definition, Functions

Metaphase in Mitosis and Meiosis - Metaphase 1 and Metaphase 2

Method for Balancing in Laboratory - Weight or Mass Measurement

Methods of food preservation - Physical and Chemical Methods 

Methyl Red and Voges Proskauer Test - Principle, Result

Methylene Blue Reduction Test

MHC Class I, Class II, Antigen Processing, and Presentation

MHC Genes - H-2 Complex and HLA Complex

MHC Molecules - Major Histocompatibility Complex

MIC Test Strip - Quantitative assay for determining the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration

Microbe-Microbe Interactions

Microbe-Plant interaction - Types, Examples

Microbial Control Methods

Microbial degradation of cellulose - Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms

Microbial Degradation of Chitin - Definition, Microorganisms, Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms

Microbial degradation of hemicellulose - Definition, Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms

Microbial Degradation of Lignin - Microorganisms, Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms, Challenges

Microbial degradation of Pectin - Enzymes, Steps, Mechanisms

Microbial Food Spoilage Causes, Classification, Process, Factors

Microbial interaction - Definition, Types, Characteristics, Examples

Microbiology of Extreme Environments - Definition, Types, Examples

Microbodies: Peroxisomes and Glyoxysomes

Microdase Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Microfilaments - Definition, Structure, Function

Microorganisms in food Spoilage - Microbes in food spoilage

Micropipettes Components, Types, Applications, Techniques

Micropropagation Definition, Application, Advantages, Disadvantages

Microscope Slides Preparation

Microsporum spp. culture, infections, treatment, prevention.

Microtome - Principle, Parts, Types, and Uses

Microtubules - Definition, Structure, Functions

Microvilli - Definition, Structure, Functions and Diagram

Middlebrook Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Milk Pasteurization Definition, Procedure, Types, Purpose

Millon’s Test Definition, Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

miRNA (microRNA) Structure, Functions, Application

Mitochondria - Definition, Structure, Functions, Origin

Mitochondria Structure worksheet

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Replication Mechanism, Factors

Mitochondrial Shuttles and Transporter Proteins.

Mitosis - Definition, Phases, Significance, Functions

Mode of action of antibiotics and classification.

Mode of Transport Across Plasma Membrane

Modified Kirby-Bauer Disc Diffusion Method

Modified Thayer Martin Agar Composition, Preparation, and Principle

Moist Heat Sterilization Principle, Advantages, Disadvantages

Molisch’s Test Objective, Principle, Procedure, Result

Monkeypox Virus - Pictures, Structure, Classification, Prevention, Treatment, Spread

Monoclonal Antibodies - Definition, Types, Production, Side Effect, Applications

Monocot and Dicot Leaves Definition, Structure, Differences, and Examples

Monocot Seed Definition, Structure, Example, Characteristics

Monocytes - Definition, Structure, Types, Functions

Monohybrid Cross - Definition, Steps, Examples, Practice

Monosaccharides -definition, structure, types, examples

Most Infectious and Deadliest Diseases Caused By Bacteria

Most Probable Number (MPN) Test: Principle, Procedure, Results

mRNA Degradation in Prokaryotic Cells

mRNA Structure, Definition, Functions, Types

Mucic acid test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissues (MALT)

Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) Composition, Principle, Preparation

Mumps Virus - Definition, Replication, Structure, Genome, Pathogenesis

Mutualism - Definition, Types, Examples

Mycorrhiza - Definition, Types, Examples, Importance

Myeloperoxidase staining Principle, Procedure, Result.


Nagler Reaction - Lecithinase Test

Naked DNA - Definition, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages

Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE)

Natural killer (NK) cells - Definition, Structure, Function, Mechanism

Necrosis - Definition, Types, Mechanism, Causes

Negative staining of Viruses - Principle, Procedure, Uses

Negative Staining Principle, Procedure, Result

Nelson Somogyi Method for Determination of reducing sugars

Neutrophil - Definition, Structure, Functions

New York City Agar Composition, Preparation, Result, Uses

Next Generation Sequencing - Principle, Steps Involved, and Applications

Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)- Definition, Types, Applications, Limitations

Ninhydrin Test Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Nipah Virus (NiV) - Definition, Structure, Genome, Replication, Transmission

Nitrate Reduction Test Procedure, Principle, Result

Nitrite Reduction Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Nitrocefin test Principle, Procedure, Uses

Nitrogen Cycle - Definition, Steps, Importance

Nitrogen Fixation - Definition, Importance, Processes

Nodulation Steps, Structure, Functions

Normal Human Microbiota Definition, Types, Advantages and Disadvantages.

Northern Blotting Protocol, Principle, Application, Result

Norwalk Virus (Norovirus) Symptoms, Transmission, Prevention, Treatment

Nosocomial Infection and its Prevention, Source, Transmission

Novobiocin Susceptibility Test Principle, Procedure, Results

Nuclear Fast Red Solution Preparation and Application

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy

Nuclear Staining by Giemsa stain: Procedure, Principle, Result

Nuclear Staining of Filamentous Fungi

Nucleoid Definition, Functions, Characteristics

Nucleolus - Definition, Structure, Functions

Nucleoside - Definition, Types, Structure, Functions

Nucleotide Biosynthesis Pathways - Salvage pathway and De novo synthesis

Nucleotide Databases - Definition, Types, Examples, Uses

Nucleotides and Nucleosides - Definition, Structure, Function, Types

Nucleus & Endoplasmic Reticulum Structure 3D Worksheet

Nucleus & Endoplasmic Reticulum Structure Worksheet

Nucleus Definition, Structure, Diagram, and Functions

Nutrient Agar Media Composition, Preparation, Uses

Nutritional types of bacteria: Classification of bacteria based on Nutritional Requirement

Nylander’s Test for Carbohydrates Principle, Procedure, Result


o-Nitrophenyl-b-D-Galactopyranoside (ONPG) Test Principle, Procedure

OF (Oxidation-Fermentation) Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure

Oil Immersion technique, objectives, Resolving Power, Used for, Types.

Okazaki Fragments Definition, Formation, Importance

One Step Growth Curve of Virus

Operon - Structure, Definition, Types, Functions

Optochin Susceptibility Test: Principle, Objective, Procedure And Results

Organic Waste Recycling - Definition, Characteristics, Methods, Steps, Significance

Organs of Immune System – Lymphoid Organs

Oriental Fermented Foods 

Ornithine Decarboxylase Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Osazone Test for Carbohydrates Principle, Procedure, Result

Ouchterlony Double Immunodiffusion Method

Overview of Bacillus anthracis

Oxidase Test Definition, Principle, Procedure, Result, Application

Oxidation Pond - Definition, Mechanisms

Oxygen Toxicity - Mechanism, Damages, Protective Mechanism


Platelets (Thrombocytes) - Definition, Structure, Function

P-value definition, significance, formula, table, finding p-value

PAM Sequence (Protospacer adjacent motif) - Definition, Functions, Properties

Papanicolaou Staining (Pap stain) - Principle, Procedure, Results, Applications

Paper Chromatography Principle, Types, Instrumentation, Steps

Papovaviruses - Overview

Paramecium Cell Definition, Characteristics, Classification, Movement, Diagram.

Parasexual cycle in Fungi

Parasitism - Definition, Types, Examples

Parasporal Crystal Stain Principle, Procedure, Result

Parthenogenesis - Definition, Types

Parts of a compound microscope Worksheet

Parts of a Microscope and their function

Parts of a Microscope and Their Functions

Parvovirus - Definition, Classification, Morphology, Diagnosis

Passive Immunity - Definition, Types, Examples

Passive Transport - Definition, Types, Examples

Pathogen Virulence Factors Definition and Pathogenicity

Pauly’s Test - Definition, Principle, Procedure, Uses

Penicillin Production

Penicillium chrysogenum - Morphology, Habitat, Characteristics

Pentose Phosphate Pathway: Definition, Importance, Steps.

Peptone Water Composition, Preparation, Uses, Principle

Peptone Yeast Extract Glucose Broth

Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) Staining - Principle, Procedure, result, Uses

Peripheral Protein - Structure, Examples, Functions

Peroxide Value Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Petri dish - Definition, Structure, Types, Uses

PH Meter Definition, Principle, Parts, Types, Application, Procedure.

Phagocytosis Definition, Steps, and Example

Phase Contrast Microscopy: definition, parts, uses, working principle.

Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method for Total Carbohydrates

Phenylalanine Deaminase Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Phenylethyl Alcohol Agar - Composition, Preparation, Uses, Limitation

Phosphorus Cycle Definition, Steps, Examples, Significance, and Human Impacts

Photo bioreactor Definition, Types, Application, Advantages

Photosynthesis definition, steps, equation, process, and diagram

Photosynthetic Bacteria Examples, Definition, Vs Chemosynthetic Bacteria

Phyllosphere Microorganisms - Examples, Factors, Effects

Phylogenetic Tree - Definition, Types, Steps, Methods, Uses

Phylum Annelida Definition, Characteristics, Classification

Phylum Arthropoda Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Examples

Phylum Aschelminthes classification, characteristics, examples

Phylum Aschelminthes Definition, Examples, Characteristics

Phylum Ascomycota Overview

Phylum Chordata Definition, Characteristics, Classes

Phylum Coelenterata (Cnidaria) Definition, Classification, Characteristics

Phylum Ctenophora Definition, Classification, Characteristics, examples

Phylum Echinodermata Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Examples

Phylum Hemichordata Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Examples

Phylum Mollusca Classification, Definition, Characteristics, Examples

Phylum Nematoda Classification, Definition, Characteristics, Examples

Phylum Platyhelminthes Classification, Definition, Characteristics, Examples

Phylum Porifera Definition, Characteristics, Classification

Physical Methods of Sterilization

Physiological Buffer preparation

Phytoremediation - Definition, Types, Mechanisms

Picric Acid Test for Glucose - Principle, Procedure, Result

Pipetting - Technique, Definition, Types

Plant cell Structure, Definition, Diagram, Organelles

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)

Plant Tissue Culture Definition, techniques, Media composition, types, application.

Plasmid Replication - Mechanism With Diagram

Plasmids - Definition, Structure, Functions, Examples

Plasmodesmata: Definition, Structure, Functions and Diagram

Plasmodium Definition, Life Cycle, Characteristics, Morphology, Diagram

Plasmodium vivax - Life Cycle in Man and in Mosquito

Plastids Definition, Types, Structure, Functions

Plate Count Agar (PCA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Pneumocystosis - Causative Agent, Treatment, Prevention

Pocket Microscope - Definition, Parts, Principle, Uses, Types

Polarizing Microscopes - Principle, Definition, Parts, Applications

Polio Virus - Structure, Genome, Replicationm, Pathogenesis

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Steps, Principle, Application

Positive Displacement Pipette - Principle, Procedure, Applications, Advantages

Positive staining of Viruses - Principle, Procedure, Result

Post-glycolysis processes

Post-transcriptional Modification

Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) Principle, Composition, Preparation, Uses

Pour Plate Method Principle, Procedure, Objective, Result, Advantages

Poxviruses - Definition, Classification, Morphology, Life cycle

Prebiotics: Definition, Types, Sources, Mechanisms

Precipitation Reaction - Definition, Principle, Types

Predation - Definition, Types, Examples

Preparation of Crystal Violet for the Gram Stain

Preparation of Different pH Buffer

Preparation of Liquid Medium/broth

Preparation of Solid Media - Agar deep tubes, Agar Slants, Plates

Preparation Of Temporary Cotton Plugs and Permanent Cotton Plugs

Preservation and Spoilage of Canned Foods

Preservation and Spoilage of Sugars and Sugar Products

Preservation, and Spoilage of Fish and Other Seafoods

Preservation, and Spoilage of Meats and Meat Products

Preservation, and Spoilage of Milk and Milk Products

Preservation, and Spoilage of Poultry

Preservation, and Spoilage of Vegetables and Fruit

Primary and Secondary Immune Response

Primary Databases - Definition, Types, Examples, Applications

Primer - Definition, Primer Design, Types, Online Tools, Uses

Principles of Food Preservation

Prions: Definition, Structure, Function, Disease, Prevention, Control, Treatment, Transmission.

Probiotics - Definition, Mechanisms, Health Effects

Producers - Definition, Types, Examples

Production Strain - Screening, Development, Preservation, Preparation

Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell

Prokaryotic cells Definition, Structure, Characteristics, Division.

Prokaryotic DNA Replication - Initiation, Elongation, Termination

Prokaryotic Translation Steps, Requirements.

Protein Databases - Definition, Types, Examples, Applications

Protein Purification Methods

Protein Synthesis (Translation)- Definition, Steps, Sites, Machinery

Proteins Definition, Properties, Structure, Classification, Functions

Proteus - Overview

Protoplast Culture Methods

Protoplasts Definition, Application and Protoplasts Culture

Protoplasts fusion - Somatic fusion

Protoplasts Isolation

Protozoa Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Structure, Diseases, Examples

Protozoa Definition, Occurrence, Ecology

Protozoa: Structure and Locomotor Organelles

PRP Centrifuge - Definition, Types, Parts, Applications

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Definition, Structure, Function, Types

Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) Protocol

Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) - Definition, Types, Steps, Applications

PYR Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Pyramid of Biomass - Definition, Types, Examples

Pyrimidines and Purines Nucleotides - Structure, Occurrence and Properties

Pyronin Y (PY) Solution Preparation and Application

Pyruvate Broth Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Result

Python Programming Language in Bioinformatics


Quantitative Buffy Coat Test (QBC Test)

Questionnaires and Schedules


R Programming Language in Bioinformatics

Rabies Virus - Structure, Genome Organization, Pathogenesis, Replication

Radial Immunodiffusion Principle, Procedure, Result

Radiation Sterilization Types, Mechanism, Applications

Rapid Furfural Test for Glucose and Fructose

RCF Centrifugation and RPM Centrifugation

Real Time PCR Principle, Protocol, Application, Advantages.

Recombinant DNA Technology Steps, Application, Tools, and Limitations

Red Blood Cell Morphology - Size, Shape, Color and Inclusion Bodies

Regulation of Glycolysis

Reproduction in Proto­zoa: Sexual reproduction, Asexual reproduction

Reproduction of Fungi: Sexual, Asexual and Vegetative Reproduction

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) - Definition, Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Restriction Digest Protocol, Principle, result

Restriction Enzyme (Restriction Endonuclease) - Definition, Types, Examples, Functions

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)

Reticulocyte Count : Principle, Procedure, Calculations and Clinical Significances

Reverse Blood Grouping Principle, Procedure, Result

Reverse CAMP test Principle, Procedure, Result

Reverse transfection - Definition, Protocol, Applications

Rhizopus microsporus - overview

Rhizopus nigricans - Life Cycle, Repoduction, Morphology, Pathogenesis

Rhizopus oligosporus - Overview

Rhizopus sporangia - Overview

Rhizopus spp - Structure, Life cycle, Habitat, Pathogenesis

Rhizopus stolonifer: Life Cycle, Habitat, Nutrition, Disease, Importance.

Rhizosphere - Definition, Microflora, Structure, Importance

Ribosome Definition, Structure, Size, Location, Function, Characteristics

Ribosome Structure Worksheet

Ribozymes (RNA enzymes) - Definition, Structure, Function, Types

Ring Precipitation Test Principle, Procedure, Result

RNA - Definition, Structure, Types, Application

RNA Interference (RNAi) - Definition, Mechanism, Application

RNA Polymerase - Structure, Definition, Types, and Functions

RNA Splicing Definition, Types, Mechanisms

Robertson’s Cooked Meat Medium (RCM Medium) Preparation, Composition.

Rocket Immunoelectrophoresis Principle, Procedure, Result, Application.

Rolling Circle Replication -  Mechanism, Application

Romanowsky Stains - Principle, Types, Applications

Rotavirus - Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Rothera's test Principle, Procedure, Result.

Rotor Stator Homogenizers - Definition, Principle, Parts, Uses

Rough vs Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

rRNA Structure, Definition, Types, Functions


Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA)

Saccharomyces Life cycle, Morphology, Economic Importance.

Salmonella Shigella Agar (SS Agar) Principle, Composition, Application

Salmonellosis - Food Infection and Food Poisoning by Salmonella

Salt Meat Broth

Salt Tolerance Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Result

Sample Preparation and composition

Sandwich (Davson–Danielli) model of cell membrane

Saprophytes: Definition, Examples, Characteristics

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): Transmission, pathogenesis, replication

Scanning Electron Microscope: Definition, Parts, Application, Principle, Advantages

Schistosoma haematobium: Life cycle, pathogenicity and prophylaxis

Schistosomiasis: Life cycle, Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention.

Schizosaccharomyces: Morphology, Reproduction, life cycle

Scope of Epidemiology

Scope of Microbiology

Scope of Microbiology in Nursing

SDS-PAGE - Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE)

Secondary Databases - Definition, Types, Examples, Uses

Secretory Vesicles Definition, Structure, Functions, and Diagram

Selenite F Broth Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Seliwanoff's Test Principle, Procedure, Result

Semiconservative Replication of DNA - Mechanism

Sequence Alignment - Definition, Types, Tools, Applications

Sere Community - Definition, Classification

Serial Dilution Method Definition, Procedure, Application

Serratia marcescens - Overview

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV)

Sewage Treatment - Wastewater Treatment Procedure

Sheep blood agar Composition, Principle, Procedure, Uses.

shRNA (Short-hairpin RNA) Structure, Definition, Mechanism

Silver Staining - Principle, Procedure, Applications

Simmons citrate agar test - Procedure, Principle, Result, Example.

Simple columnar epithelium definition, structure, functions, examples

Simple diffusion definition, principle, examples, applications

Simple Microscope: Working Principle, Uses, Parts, and their Functions.

Simple Staining Procedure, Principle, Result

Single Use Bioreactor - Principle, Parts, Types, Uses

siRNA (Small Interfering RNA) - Structure, Mechanism, Functions

Size, Shape, and Arrangement of Bacterial Cells With Picture and Example

Sludge Wastes Treatment - Methods, Types, Factors, Uses

Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) - Structure, Types, Definition

Soil Formation (Pedogenesis)- Definition, Factors, Process, Steps, Examples

Soil Microorganisms - Types, Examples, Factors, Importance 

Soil profile and Soil Horizon - Definition, Types, Importance

Solid State Fermentation (SSF)

Solid Waste Management

Solubility Tests of Proteins Principle, Procedure, Result, Application

Solution and Cell/Culture/Growth Media Preparations

Sorbitol MacConkey Agar Composition, Preparation and Uses

SOS Repair - SOS Response in Bacteria

Southern Blotting Definition, Principle, Steps, Importance

Spectrophotometer Principle, Uses, Components.

Sphaeroplasts Definition, Formation, Applications

Sphagnum habit, characteristics, structure, reproduction

Spirogyra - Definition, Structure, Life Cycle, Diagram, Reproduction

Spliceosome - Definition, Types, Structure, Mechanism

Spoilage and Defects of Fermented Dairy Products 

Spontaneous Generation Theory and Biogenesis theory

Sporothrix schenckii - Morphology, Pathogenesis, Transmission

Spread‌ ‌Plate‌ ‌Method‌: Procedure, Principle, Purpose, Result.

SSC (Northern Blot, 20x) and SSPE (Blot, 20x, pH 7.4) Preparation and Recipe

Staphylococcus aureus

Starch Casein Agar (SCA)- Composition, Principle, Preparation

Starch Hydrolysis Test - Principle, Procedure, Results, Uses

Starter Culture - Definition, Types, Preparation, and Applications

Starter Cultures Preparation, Maintenance and Preservation

Stem cell - Definition, Types, Application, Advantages

Stokes Disc Diffusion Method Principle, Procedure, Result.

Storage Granules - Definition, Structure, Functions

Stratified cuboidal epithelium

Stratified squamous epithelium Function, Definition, Location, Types.

Streak Plate Method: Patterns, Procedure, Principle

Streptococcus pneumoniae - Habitat, Morphology, Genomes

Streptococcus Selective Agar Composition, Preparation, and Principle

Stroma in chloroplast and Stroma in Animal Tissue

Strongyloides stercoralis (Parasitic Roundworm)

Structure and Function of Ecosystems - Definition, Types

Structure and Functions of Major Histocompatibility Complex I

Structure and Genome of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) with diagram

Structure of Gram-negative cell wall

Structure of Gram-positive cell wall

Study of Aspergillus by using Temporary Mount Technique

Study of Chlamydomonas and Volvox by using Whole mount

Study of Penicillium using Temporary Mount

Study of Rhizopus by using Temporary Mount.

Subculturing technique for Broth Culture

Subculturing Technique In Agar Slant/Agar Plate

Sucrose gradient centrifugation

Sudan Black B Staining - Principle, Procedure, Applications

Sulfur Reduction Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Result

Sulphosalicylic Acid Test for Proteinuria: Principle, Procedure, Result, Uses

Sulphur cycle - Definition, Steps, Types, Importance

Superantigens (SAgs) - Definition, Structure, Examples

SXT Test - Principle, Procedure, Result

Symbiosis Relationship- Definition, Types, Examples

Synchronous culture Definition, Methods, Application.


T cell (T Lymphocyte) - Definition, Types, Development

T Dependent Antigen and T Independent Antigen

Taenia solium - Structure, Reproduction, Life Cycle, Characteristics

Taproot vs Fibrous root - Difference between Taproot and Fibrous root 

TCBS Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Temporary Wet Mount (TWM) technique for observation of Living Organisms.

Terrestrial Ecosystem - Definition, Types, Examples

Testing of Disinfectants (evaluation methods of disinfectants)

Thallus Organisation in Algae

The Beer–Lambert law

The Complement Pathway, Activation, Functions, and Deficiencies.

The Earth BioGenome Project (EBP)

The Glyoxylate Cycle: Definition, Steps, Functions.

The Human Genome Project - An Overview

The Laws of Thermodynamics

The most lethal viruses of all Time

The progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection throughout the respiratory system

The Wobble Hypothesis - Definition, Exaplanation, Importance

Theta Model of Replication - Definition, Mechanism

Thick and Thin Blood Smear for Malaria Diagnosis

Thin Layer Chromatography Principle, Components, Procedure, Application

Thioglycollate Broth Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Tissue Homogenizer - Definition, Parts, Types, Procedure

Tollens’ Test Definition, Principle, Procedure, Result, Application.

Toluidine blue stain of Mast Cell.

Tonicity Definition, Types, Examples

Tools Used in Microbiology Laboratory

Top 10 Difference Between Monera, Protista, Fungi, Animalia, Plantae

Top 11 Books for Cell Biology

Top 13 Lab Techniques You Must Know

Top 14 books for Industrial Microbiology

Top 14 Difference Between Monera and Protista

Top 15 Books for Food and diary Microbiology

Top 15 Books for Molecular Biology

Top 16 Infectious and Deadliest Diseases Caused By Bacteria

Top 17 Books for Genetics

Top 18 books for Environmental Microbiology

Top 22 Difference Between Bacteria and Virus

Top 30 Differences Between Bacteria, Archae, and Eukarya.

Top 32 Difference Between Light Microscope and Electron Microscope

Top 6 Books For Biofertilizers and Biopesticides

Top 6 Books on Microbial Physiology and Metabolism

Top 8 AI Generated Picture of Microscope

Top and Best Books for Microbiology

Top and Best Books on Virology

Top Biotech Companies of India

Top M.Sc in Microbiology (Private and Government) colleges in West Bengal (Wb)

Top Universities in West Bengal Offering Microbiology

Topoisomerase - Definition, Structure, Types, Functions, Mechanism

Torovirus - Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis

Total Red Blood Cell (RBC) Count – Procedure, Principle, result

Total White Blood Cell (WBC) Count - Total Leucocyte Count (TLC)

Toxigenic Fungi And Fungal Mycotoxins In Food

Traditional Indian Fermented Foods 

Transcription In Prokaryotes Definition, Stages, Significance

Transfection - Definition, Types, Principle, Applications

Transfection PEI (Polyethylenimine) Protocol

Transfection Protocols - Principle, Protocol, Uses

Transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) Definition, Structure, Properties

Transgenic Plants Examples, Definition, Procedure, Application

Transitional epithelium Definition, Structure, Function, Location, and Example

Translation In Eukaryotes - Protein synthesis in Eukaryotic

Translational regulation - Definition, Mechanism

Transmission Electron Microscope: Definition, Parts, Working Principle, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages

Transmission of Diseases

Transplantation - Definition, Types, Examples

Transport Media Used in Laboratories

Transposable elements - Definition, Types, Examples, Application

Transposition - Definition, Types, Mechanism

Trichophyton spp - Morphology, Life cycle, Pathogenesis

Triple Beam Balance - Parts, Procedure, Uses

Triple Sugar Iron (TSI) Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Triple Sugar Iron (TSI) Agar test Principle, Procedure, Result

Tris-SDS Buffer Preparation of pH 6.8 and 8.8 for SDS PAGE

tRNA Structure, Definition, Functions, Types

Trypanosoma gambiense - Life Cycle, Pathogenesis, Prophylaxis, Structure, Treatment

Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Tryptone Soya Broth for the enrichment of Staph. aureus

Tryptophan (Trp) Operon -  Repressible operon

Tumor Antigen

Tumor Immunology - Definition, features

Tumors - Types, Tumor Antigens, Risk Factors

Type I Hypersensitivity Reaction 

Type II (Cytotoxic) Hypersensitivity

Type III Hypersensitivity

Type IV or Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH)

Types of Blood Collection Tubes and Their uses

Types of Centrifuge, Definition, Principle, and Applications

Types of Plant Cell

Types of RNA with Structure and Functions

Types of Spectroscopy with Definition, Principle, Steps, Uses

Types of Staining Techniques

Types of Stains used in Microbiology

Types of Vaccines With Examples


Ultracentrifuge Definition, Principle, Types, Uses

Ultrasonic Homogenizer - Principle, Parts, Types, Uses

Urease Test Principle, Procedure, Result

USB Microscope Principle, Definition, Parts, Examples, Uses

UV-Vis Spectroscopy Principle, Instrumentation, Applications, Advantages, and Limitation


Vacuole Staining - Observation of Vacuoles under Microscope

Vacuoles Definition, Structure, Types, Functions, and Diagram

Varicella Zoster Virus - Definition, Structure, Genome, Replication

Vector - Definition, Examples, Characteristics, Types, Applications, Limitations

Vegetative Propagation Definition, Types, Methods, Advantages

Vesicles Definition, Structure, Types, and Functions

Viability Staining Method For Bacteria

Viral Entry Into The Host Body

Viral Immunology

Viral Life Cycle: Steps of Viral Infection

Viral Pathogenesis Definition, Mechanisms, Factors

Viral Replication Cycle - Definition, Steps, Mechanisms

Viral Spread and Organ Invasion of Virus

Viral Transport Media (VTM) Definition, Principle, Preparation, Application

Viroids Definition, Infection, Structure, Examples, Diagnostic, Origin, Disease.

Virus Cultivation - Definition, Methods, Importance

Virus Structure and Application, Origin, Definition, Characters, and Example.

Vitamin A - Structure, Functions, Properties, Source and deficiency

Vitamin B12 Production

Voges Proskauer (VP) Test Principle, Procedure, Results

Vortex Mixer - Definition, Principle, Parts, Uses

VRBA Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses


Waste Source, Definition, Types, Impacts

Water Distiller - Working Principle, Parts, Types, Uses

Watson and Crick DNA Model

Wave Bioreactor - Principle, Parts, Types, Uses

West Nile Virus (WNV) - Structure, Genome, Replication, Pathogenesis, Treatment

Western Blot Protocol, Principle, Result.

What are Immune Booster Foods?

What are Telomeres and Telomerases?

What is Algae? Characteristics and Occurrence of Algae.

What is bacteria? Types, Structure, Shapes, Morphology, Nutrition, Growth, Habitat, Reproduction, Examples.

What is Entropy?

What is Ergonomic Pipetting?

What Is Gene Silencing? - Definition, Process, Techniques, Applications

What Is Gene Therapy? - Definition, Types, Vectors, Applications

What is Genomics?

What is Phycology?

What is the Difference Between Ebola and Zika

What is the Difference Between Neisseria Gonorrhoeae and Neisseria Meningitidis

What is the Difference between YAC and BAC Vectors?

What is Toxigenic Algae And Algal Food Poisoning?

What is voluntary muscle?

Wheatley Trichrome Staining - Principle, Procedure, Uses

Whittaker's Five Kingdom Classification - Advantages and Limitations

Widal Test Principle, Procedure, Result, Advantages, Limitation

Wine Production

Wright Giemsa Stain Protocol, Principle, Result.

Wright Stain Principle, Procedure, Result


X and V factor Test Principle, Purpose, Procedure, Result

X Ray fish - Reproduction, Habitat, Diet, Anatomy

X-Ray Crystallography

X-Ray Spectroscopy Principle, Instrumentation and Applications

Xanthoproteic test Principle, Procedure, Result, Application

Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) Agar Composition, Preparation, Principle, Uses


Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) - Definition, Structure, Construction, Uses

Yeasts Starter Cultures  

YEPD Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses

Yersinia Selective Agar Composition, Principle, Preparation, Results, Uses


Ziehl-Neelsen Staining (ZN Staining) - Principle and Procedure, Result

Zika Virus (ZIKV) - Definition, Structure, Genome, Replication, Transmission

Zygomycosis (Mucormycosis) - Causative Agent, Symptoms, Prevention, Treatment

Zygomycota Overview

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